Today, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD) has become a common diagnosis in children and adolescents. Roughly 7% of American children between the ages of 7 and 13 are diagnosed with ADHD. This phenomenon has been on the rise since the early 1990s when the first drug was discovered to help parents and teachers control the behaviors of children with what was considered extreme hyperactivity and difficulty concentrating. Individuals with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) do not automatically meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.
According to studies, many children and teens are misdiagnosed with the H-factor when not meeting that criterion. According to the diagnostic criteria from DSM-5, children and teens must exhibit a deficit in the area of attention and display symptoms of impulsivity, hyperkinetic activity, and blurt-out thoughts.
The qualifiers most doctors seem to miss or gloss over are the words persistent and increasing when it comes to the diagnostic criteria. Some researchers are concerned that evaluators are placing too much stock in self-reports of children and teens or what teachers have to say. Without following the DSM-5 criteria, these children and teens are labeled with ADHD, which can be stigmatizing for them and their families.
Why So Many Get It Wrong
Children are typically quite active, and some may seem hyperactive. However, hyperactivity coming from a teacher’s or a parent’s point of view may be subjective. Children are expected to sit for extended periods of the day in school. For a child who likes to play, this may seem unreasonable. Depending upon how structured the home is, this may be the only time the child is expected to sit still. Children are typically more active than most adults. They often play, run around, and show a variety of interests and curiosities in the world around them. If a child is bored or kept inactive for long periods, they may feel they are bursting from the seams with energy. Before parents and teachers label a child as ADHD and seek a supporting diagnosis, they may want to ask themselves a series of questions:
Some teachers may seem to forget that differentiating classroom instruction and activities does not always apply to children with learning disabilities or exceptionalities. Different children have different personalities and learning styles, and education may not work as a one-size-fits-all and home life for a child. If a parent has five children, no two of them will be the same. Suppose one child, the oldest of two, is quiet, with a calm demeanor, never giving a moment of trouble, when the younger sibling comes along and is talkative and sometimes naughty. In that case, their parents cannot expect the same strategies used with one child for getting homework done, or a bath is taken to work the same for both.
Where is the bar set for teachers and parents before deciding they may need to seek mental health support for a child? The difficult part is often, once one teacher has labeled a child with ADD or ADHD, it often sticks and sets the tone for other teachers to anticipate these behaviors.
When It is Right
ADHD may also be a very legitimate concern for some children and adolescents. It is a disorder, and that means that there is a persistent pattern of behavior or symptoms that may interfere with the child’s or adolescent’s ability to function in their daily lives. However, there is nowhere in the criteria that state the child or teen’s behavior interferes with the parents or the teacher’s ability to function.
The Dangerous Side of Flip
Alternatively, there are the children who are never identified. Their thoughts and behaviors become uncomfortable for them, so they have learned to self-medicate either with alcohol or other substances by the time they reach adolescence. These adolescents may have just opened the door to substance use, and that has the potential to become a dangerous path or continuous cycle.
There is yet another side of the coin for children and adolescents who show signs and symptoms that may signify ADHD, and that may not be hyperactivity but hyper-intelligence. That is perhaps one of the more difficult parts of medicating a child. Medicating a gifted child is maybe like breaking the wrist of a child who has a great pitching arm. The characteristics of the gifted child are often confused with that of ADHD.
|Characteristic||Hyperactivity||Poor Attention Span||Exaggerated Expressions||Talkative||Bossy/Assertive||Creative/Big Ideas|
The difference is that when a gifted child is placed with others who are also gifted or above-average intelligence, difficult behaviors that may mask themselves as symptoms of ADHD will often diminish.
Frequently parents who are feeling frustrated or helpless with a child’s behavior may be willing to accept the opinion of a teacher, school psychologist, or special education evaluator in search of answers. That opinion may not always be accurate.
The Duality of Being Mislabeled
There are also children with dual exceptionalities; they are gifted and have ADHD yet do not fit neatly under either label. As a recent study has suggested, it may be discomforting to realize that someone is so multifaceted that they cannot easily fit inside a box or be assigned a label. Often, it is simply easier to label a child as ADHD and place the child for treatments. Then simply see that child as being eccentric, which is often a characteristic of giftedness. Such students carry this label with them through high school, as once diagnosed, the situation is rarely revisited. High school students often have lived with the stigma associated with special education since elementary school.
Before labeling a child as ADHD, it is important for parents, teachers, and practitioners to recognize that a child is more than a diagnosis. It takes time, sometimes even months, of testing, trying different strategies, and working closely with the child by all involved parties before a diagnosis should be rendered. Most importantly, the time and steps should be taken before prescribing medications.
While the treatment that is emphasized for treating ADHD is a pharmacological one, nonpharmacological approaches are also being studied and practiced. Although medications are an effective treatment for ADHD and work quickly, the long-term side effects are not well known. The medication also doesn’t necessarily address issues children have managing academic performance or personal relationships. If you feel your child or adolescent may be living with ADHD or has recently been diagnosed, there are many effective treatments you can try before resorting to prescribing medications.
The American Academy of Pediatricians’ 2011 treatment guidelines recommend behavioral strategies as the first line of treatment for ADHD in young children. The key to success is early and consistent intervention. These intervention treatments fall into three main categories: parent programs, teacher programs, and therapeutic recreational programs.
The parent program focuses on parents or caregivers rewarding children for good behavior instead of always commenting on the behaviors they deem bad or poor. This ensures children are getting attention for being good instead of always focusing on the negative.
Teacher programs focus on giving teachers behavioral strategies to use in the classroom. These often include simple step-by-step instructions and announce consequences ahead of time for not paying attention or following instructions. Contingency management is also used in teacher programs where children may receive daily report cards outlining goals within the classroom. Children will receive rewards when they’ve met their goals.
Therapeutic recreational programs involve regular interactions between children with ADHD. In these programs, children learn traditional activities or sports, behavioral interventions, social skills, contingency management strategies, and team skills.
Lifestyle changes may be a powerful treatment for children or adolescents with ADHD and caregivers or those involved. Research shows that daily physical activity may help those with ADHD ignore distractions, focus on tasks, and improve academic performance. Studies also show that adequate sleep is crucial for children living with ADHD symptoms, and behaviors improved among children who got more sleep. Unlike adults who become fatigued and slow down with lack of sleep, children with ADHD often become hyperactive.
Parents should be empowered by school counselors, teachers, and pediatricians to advocate for their children. Providing literature, seminars, and webcast information, strategies, and the latest educational resources, as well as medical research, can benefit parents.
Until a proper diagnosis has been given and a decision made as to whether medication is the appropriate course of treatment, parents may consider other forms of treatment such as behavioral therapies and interventions. If you feel your child may have ADHD, a therapist may be able to help. BetterHelp is an online therapy platform that can provide you and your family with support and advice to get your child on the right track. They can offer different strategies that will best suit your and your child’s needs. Reach out to speak to someone today.