Counselor Vs Psychologist: Which Do You Need?

By Dylan Buckley

Updated December 03, 2019

Reviewer Carnell Colebrook-Claude , MA, NCC, BC-TMH, LPC (Clinical Track), LPCC, LCPC, LIMHP, LSOTP

Struggling with mental or emotional health issues and wondering who to go to for help? In this article we'll explain the differences between a counselor versus a psychologist and for which situations you may seek treatment from one over the other.

Counselors And Psychologist Do Different Jobs. Learn Which One You Need?
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To put it simply, counselors or therapists could be considered experts in broad areas, whereas psychologists have additional training and education on certain aspects of mental health. These differences become particularly visible when you see the type of disorders that they treat and the levels of severity in their clients. In some cases, psychologists may be able to treat conditions that a counselor cannot.

When it comes to understanding the differences between a counselor and a psychologist, there are visible differences in three main areas: level of education, level of specialization, and what they are able to legally offer for treatment. Read on to learn more about these differences.

The Three Defining Characteristics That Separate Counselors from Psychologists

As we look at the differences between counselors and psychologists, you'll learn more about what you might need in a professional.

1. Education

Both counselors and psychologists are licensed to practice within their given state. However, counselors typically have less formal education than their psychologist counterparts. At the highest level, they may have a master's degree or doctoral degree and meet other specific requirements for their practice, such as passing certain examinations and a requisite number of supervised training hours.

Overall, however, their education is much more general to prepare them to handle a wide range of patients. Psychologists, on the other hand, will have at least a master's degree and will often have doctoral degrees as well. Plus, they will have done an extensive amount of in-depth research into human psychology along with thousands of hours of supervised training sessions to help them better understand the complexities of mental illnesses and how to treat them.

The length of education is another factor to consider. For instance, most master's degree programs take two to three years to complete, whereas doctoral programs last anywhere from four to seven years. In both programs, counselors and psychologists study different materials and acquire different clinical experience. These differences generally include the following variations:

  1. Psychologists typically have an educational background and practical training in administering and interpreting psychological evaluations. Most counselors are not trained in this area and are unable to provide psychological testing.
  2. Both counselors and psychologists learn about and are required to practice under a set of ethical guidelines. However, some of the guidelines are different according to the degree level which is obtained.
  3. Psychologists are usually required to participate in more clinical research than counselors. For example, completing a lengthy research paper called a dissertation is required in most doctoral programs.
  4. Counselors will often gain one to two years of clinical experience prior to graduating while psychologists usually acquire three to four years of clinical experience prior to graduating.

2. Specialization

Counselors are trained to provide counseling to almost anyone who seeks their services and are typically not focused on one area of treatment. Whether that means they work as a social worker handling familial disputes or as an online counselor coaching people through chronic anxiety, a counselor's main job is to talk with patients and help them work through their issues. If someone needs treatment for a specific mental illness, a psychologist may be a better source of help.


The four most common career paths in the field of psychology lead to being psychologists, social workers, counselors, and therapists. Within these career paths, there are a number of specializations to choose from. For instance, there are several areas of psychology, such as Clinical Psychology, Forensic Psychology, Business Psychology, and Neuropsychology. Both counselors and psychologists are encouraged to choose a specialization, so they are better able to understand and help others. In addition to the various areas of psychology, counselors and psychologists may choose to focus on specific populations and mental health diagnoses. These specializations can include substance abuse, chronic pain, depression, anxiety, psychotic disorders, children or adults involved in the criminal justice system, various sexual orientations, and much more.

3. Treatment

When it comes to treatment, counselors can do exactly what you'd expect: they counsel. That means they meet with patients and provide talk therapy to help their patients return to a healthier mental or emotional state. Depending on the scope of their practice within their specific organization/agency, however, they may not be able to provide specific diagnoses. In some cases, this makes them more like a wise confidant who is able to give trusted advice based on their experience with different therapeutic modalities. Meanwhile, a psychologist is able to diagnose mental disorders.

What Does This Mean for You? How to Look for the Appropriate Specialist

If you have decided to see a therapist, whether they are a counselor or a psychologist, you have already on the road to overall health and happiness. Since many individuals have no idea what to expect from therapy, this decision can be a scary one. Although finding the right therapist who is important, the process itself doesn't have to be stressful or tedious if given some thought. Below are some additional factors to consider when searching for a counselor or psychologist:

  1. What Are My Present Problems? The answer(s) to this question can help guide your search for the right clinician. If you are aware of your previous or current struggles (e.g., depression, anxiety, or anger), you should search for a clinician who has experience with these diagnoses/issues. Typically, you can get this information by searching online or calling the therapist to ask about their specialty. At this time, be sure to highlight your mental health symptoms and the severity of your current disorder.
  2. Do I Need a Diagnosis? Perhaps you are seeking therapy as the result of a court order or a job requirement. In many cases, the third-party (e.g., court or work) will require you to receive a diagnosis, even if it's only for insurance/payment purposes. This is important because, in some states, only psychologists can render diagnoses. Keep this in mind when searching for a clinician. If you are simply new to mental health issues and have not had a struggle in the past, you should seek out to the appropriate specialist based on your condition and how much it's impacting your quality of life.
  3. Is There a Need for Psychotropic Medication? In addition to participating in therapy, some individuals can benefit from taking prescribed medication(s) for their mental, emotional, and/or behavioral health. If this applies to you, try searching for a clinician who specializes in providing therapy and is also qualified to prescribe psychotropic medications. You and your doctor will need to carefully consider this approach as drugs are not always efficient in treating mental illness.

Counselors And Psychologist Do Different Jobs. Learn Which One You Need?
Work On Your Mental Health With An Online Therapist

Source: jcomp via

Before you search for a mental health professional, we should also debunk a repeated myth. Some people may perceive psychologists as being "better" or "more qualified" when compared to counselors because of their education. However, this just is not true. No matter the degree level or the amount of clinical experience one has received, counselors and psychologists alike are expected to follow all ethical guidelines and provide the best level of care to their clients. Overall, the most important things to consider are,

  1. What issues you would like to address in therapy?
  2. What type of therapeutic relationship interests you?
  3. Which therapist best meets your needs?

Simplify Your Mental Health Journey with BetterHelp

When it comes to your mental or emotional issues, only you can decide what type of treatment suits you best. If you don't know where to start, connecting with an online counselor at a website like BetterHelp is a great way to begin. You don't need to worry about sitting in traffic or taking time out of your day to drive to an appointment. You may access BetterHelp from the comfort and privacy of your own home. Read below for some reviews of BetterHelp counselors, from people experiencing different issues.

Counselor Reviews

"Karen is amazing. I've never done therapy before and was very skeptical of it. I also wasn't sure if I wanted to talk about my stresses, feelings and opening up about work and relationships. Karen has made it very easy to do that and very appreciative of the work she does. I've been working with Karen for 3 weeks and have seen big improvements and changes in my life. Very thankful for Karen and this platform. It is really amazing to talk to someone that listens and offers great advice, encouragement and doesn't judge. Thanks Karen!"

"In the short span of 9 months, Shonnie has become like one of my best friends. At first, I was skeptical of doing therapy since I'm very "psychologically healthy". A few challenges in my personal life lead me to try therapy for a month. Now I consider it an important part of my growth as a businessman and leader within my community. Thank you Shonnie for being so helpful during the recent difficulties; I am very lucky to have found you!"


It can be easy to mix up terms like "counselor" and "psychologist," but it's important to be well-informed on these matters, so you can find the professional who is right for you. If you have been experiencing problems with your mental health, help is available to you. Take the first step on your healing journey today.

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