Free Association: What Is It, And How Does It Work?

By Patricia Oelze

Updated January 02, 2019

Reviewer Tiffany Howard, LPC, LCADC


Telling people about the random thoughts that pass through your mind isn't the best way to make friends. It might be boring, embarrassing, or too revealing to make for good dinner conversation. Yet, those thoughts can be useful in the right situation. In therapy, free association is one way to get to the heart of your problems.

What Is Free Association?

There are two ways to define free association. First, the compact of free association is an agreement between another country and the U.S. that governs the way individuals establish citizenship when moving to the U.S. Compacts of free association grant special privileges to people of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Palau. While this definition might be interesting to people who live in those places, it doesn't pertain to most others.

Free Association Definition

The free association psychology definition is something altogether different. The free association definition psychology uses refers to a process of discovering your genuine thoughts, memories, and feelings by freely sharing all the seemingly random thoughts that pass through your mind.

Who First Developed Free Association as a Technique?

Sigmund Freud was the first pioneer of the psychoanalysis technique of free association. Josef Breuer was the first to use a similar technique, calling his method 'catharsis.'

Freud worked on developing this technique further between 1892 and 1898. This new method became a cornerstone of psychoanalysis therapy. Freud based free association on the theory of psychic determinism that informed all his work.

Theory of Psychic Determinism

The theory of psychic determinism was an important concept in psychoanalysis theory in Freud's day and continues to be important to psychoanalysts and psychodynamic therapists as well. The theory states that everything you say and do is significant because it's based on your previous experiences and your instinctual drives, whether you're consciously aware of them or not.


Replacing Hypnotism

Before he developed free association, Freud relied heavily on hypnotism to learn about the part of the patient's psyche that was hidden in the unconscious. He wanted to find a different way of accessing this information. Freud, who was familiar with Breuer's work with catharsis, adapted the method to his practice.

"All Roads Lead to Rome"

Freud used the saying 'All roads lead to Rome" to refer to his idea that anything you say or do eventually leads back to the source of your problems. To Freud, a simple slip of the tongue was significant. In his view, it wasn't possible to make a mistake. Everything is intended, whether consciously or unconsciously. And, each of these bits of information gets to the heart of your basic problem if followed to its natural conclusion.

Analysis of Free Associations

After listening to his patient's random thoughts, Freud would analyze the information to find the hidden meaning. The goal of psychoanalysis was to find the source of your problem and reveal it to you. Freud's thinking was that once you understood what was causing you to think or behave in ill-adaptive ways, the problem would naturally resolve for you.

How Free Association Works

Free association is easy to understand, although it might not always be easy for you if you're the patient. The psychologist has a harder job, as they use their expertise to go beyond the words spoken to the unconscious meaning of it. Free association starts with instructions from the psychoanalyst or therapist.

Lie Down (Or Not) and Relax

First, you get comfortable. If Freud's day, you would lie down on a couch. Now, you might simply sit up in a comfortable chair instead. The therapist instructs you to share your thoughts freely, without embarrassment. They tell you not to censor yourself, but to say any words that come to you.

Talk about Whatever

Saying every thought that comes to you can seem strange when you first try it. You may feel your string of thoughts is nonsensical. Freud would say that that stream of consciousness makes perfect sense once you discover the underlying problem.


The important thing to remember is that even if not every word or thought seems to make sense, you are more likely to discover something you didn't know before because you aren't censoring what you say. Rather than creating your story, as people do all the time, you're discovering it.

Listen to Interpretations

Freud typically said very little if anything while his patients were free associating. His goal was to listen closely, interpret your free thoughts, and offer his analysis of them.

Today, therapists may include you in this process, asking you if anything surprised you and got your opinion on what something means. This provides you and the therapist with another avenue into your psyche via your conscious mind.

How It Works in Other Therapies

Free association is used most in psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy. However, it can also be used in other forms of therapy. If so, it's usually used only briefly and as a prelude to an active discussion. Also, in other types of therapy, the thoughts may not all be considered significant. They may be viewed as simple mistakes or unimportant details.

Related Techniques

Some other therapy techniques use the same type of stream of consciousness method. Free association writing involves writing down thoughts as they come to you. You may do this in a therapy session or as a homework assignment between sessions. The therapist reads what you've written. Then, they'll offer you their thoughts, ask you questions about what certain words mean to you, and explain how your thoughts reveal certain things about you.

Some therapists may use a different free association technique by giving you more instructions. They might tell you to think of a certain situation and share the thoughts that arise from that suggestion. Or, they might instruct you to join them in a simple word association technique. In this, the therapist says a word, and you say the first word or words you think of. Word association is a separate technique from a traditional free association, but it can be used to find out similarly hidden truths.


Do Therapists Still Use Free Association?

Free association is central to the process of psychoanalysis and certainly important in psychodynamic therapy as well as other treatment methods. Therapists do still use free association, although the technique has changed to some extent.

Differences in Use

In modern therapy, the patient usually takes a more active role in the process of unraveling the meaning of the apparently unrelated words, phrases, and descriptions. The therapist might also give more instructions and engage with you more than early psychologists like Freud did with their patients.

Modern Responses to Free Association

Because psychotherapy is more readily available, more people are familiar with it. People tend to be more open to different therapeutic techniques. Free association has also been depicted in everything from books to movies to animated TV series. So, once you begin to engage in the method, it may seem more familiar to you than it was to people in the late 1800s. This familiarity may make you feel more comfortable with it, and you may relax more as you're doing it.

In Freud's day, free association was only used in psychoanalysis and rarely in any other situation. Now, it's not only used in psychoanalysis therapy, but it's also used in psychodynamic therapy and other forms of therapy. Saying what comes to mind is also familiar to anyone who's been involved in a brainstorming session to create something new or work out problems in a business.

Benefits of Free Association

Whether your therapist is a psychoanalyst or an eclectic therapist, free association therapy can provide you with many benefits.


Brings Up Things You Didn't Think Were Important

In free association, you don't discard thoughts even if you think they're irrelevant. Because your therapist hears every thought, they can understand things neither of you might have realized before. While you might not see the significance of something that comes to your mind, the therapist has a broader perspective, having spoken to many other people with similar mental health issues.

Uncover Hidden Thoughts

Sometimes, we file away painful thoughts so deeply in our unconscious that even we don't realize they're there. If those thoughts are important to us, sometimes all it takes is a free association session to reveal them. When this happens, the knowledge of what you've been hiding from yourself can bring you a sense of relief and closure. And, once you know about that thought, you can deal with it consciously and reasonably decide what to do.

Express Repressed Feelings

People tend to repress feelings that are too painful or confusing to deal with at the moment. You may feel numb about something that you think should be upsetting you deeply.

For example, if a mother who has lost a child feels nothing about that loss, it can be vital to their mental health to confront those feelings of grief. During free association, you can tap into your deeper feelings about such issues, experience them in safety, and eventually move on.

Get To The Root Of The Problem


It's one thing to know you have a problem. It's often more difficult to know what's behind your outer symptoms. Free association psychology sessions can help you find where the problem began. Free association is central to the process of getting to the root of serious mental health issues, so you can work with your psychologist to create a plan for overcoming them.

Will Free Association Help Me?

Free association as one technique of many can help nearly everyone. However, as a sole method of therapy, it has some limitations. It isn't right for everyone, so it's important to assess its value to you in your situation.

Type Of Mental Health Issue

The issue you're dealing with is an important consideration. If your issue is that you're trying to change behavior quickly, cognitive behavioral therapy might be more appropriate for you. On the other hand, if you want to delve into a long-standing and significant problem, free association might be an excellent way to open up the conversation.

That doesn't mean free association is only for severe mental illness, though. It can be used to uncover any memories, thoughts, and feelings that are important for you to deal with.

Urgency Of Problem

Free association is typically not used for people who are in crisis. For those who are having suicidal or homicidal thoughts and plans, the problem needs to be dealt with much more quickly and directly.

Your Beliefs

Before you decide to embark on a course of psychoanalysis, you need to think about your core beliefs. Do you believe some mistakes are just random? If so, you might not appreciate someone suggesting that an embarrassing thought you speak aloud says something about your problems or who you are as a person.

You may believe that everything does have to mean. You might wonder about the meaning of your thoughts yourself. If so, free association might be very helpful for you. If you aren't sure but are open to trying free association, you might find that you can learn more about yourself and your problems than you ever knew before.

Your Preferences

You might fare best in therapy if you choose a therapy you feel comfortable with. Maybe you hate to be embarrassed and feel you would say things you didn't want anyone, even your therapist, to know. Or, you might like to deal with your problems more directly and actively. In that case, you might prefer a different type of therapy.

Choosing A Therapist


Once you understand how to define free association, you might decide that you want your therapist to use it or that you would rather not have free association therapy. In either case, you can talk to any prospective therapist first to find out if they use this technique.

Of course, anytime you choose a therapist, you always have the option to keep searching until you find a therapist who meets your needs. makes that easy by allowing you to quickly and easily change from one therapist to another. You can overcome your problems and mental health issues with the right help from a licensed therapist who understands the importance of getting treatment that suits you.

Previous Article

What Is The Definition Of Cognition In Psychology?

Next Article

What Psychoanalysis Is And How It Started
For Additional Help & Support With Your Concerns
Speak with a Licensed Counselor Today
The information on this page is not intended to be a substitution for diagnosis, treatment, or informed professional advice. You should not take any action or avoid taking any action without consulting with a qualified mental health professional. For more information, please read our terms of use.