The basic meaning of the word "sublimation" is "to change form." In psychology, sublimation is a mature defense mechanism used to channel socially unacceptable behaviors or impulses, such as aggressive drives, into positive or at least socially acceptable actions like creativity. This process often arises from desires originating in childhood and can help individuals in certain situations find healthier ways of handling troublesome urges.
The Psychological Definition Of Sublimation
Fromtime to time, everyone feels urges or impulses that could be considered socially unacceptable or problematic to act on. Sublimation is a psychological defense mechanism we may use to channel those feelings and inclinations into something acceptable and even beneficial. Sublimation has been a useful component in understanding behavior in social psychology and interpersonal psychoanalysis.
What Are Psychological Defense Mechanisms?
The term "defense mechanism" comes from the psychoanalytic theory developed by Sigmund Freud. He believed that the human psyche has three components: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id consists of our primitive and most basic urges, or original drives. The superego is the part that’s rational and composed of ideas gained from cultural norms. The ego is the realistic part. When the urges of the id conflict with the demands and morals of the superego, the ego typically finds a way, such as using a sublimation defense mechanism, to resolve the conflict.
Psychoanalyst Anna Freud, Sigmund Freud's daughter, then outlined a list of what she called “defense mechanisms.” She identified them as the processes that our egos may use to resolve the conflicts between the id and superego. They’re mental shifts that typically happen on a subconscious level and are unconsciously channeled into more socially acceptable modes.
Some defense mechanisms include:
- Repression, when a feeling is pushed into our unconscious.
- Reaction formation, when we behave in a way that's the opposite of what we’re feeling.
- Projection, when we see our own unacceptable feelings in others.
- Denial, when we deny that the thing that's upsetting us has happened, or that we have feelings related to it.
- Regression, when we mentally go back to a time in our lives when we felt safer or more accepted.
- Rationalization, when we rationalize or make excuses for our feelings or behavior.
- Intellectualization, when we focus on thinking rationally about our feelings and urges to such an extent that we block the emotional content.
- Displacement, when we take out our unacceptable feelings on someone or something less threatening than the person or thing that caused them.
- And sublimation, when we transform "unacceptable" urges into acceptable or even productive activities.
Examples Of Sublimation
So what does sublimation look like in practice? There are many different examples of how it may be used to transform various types of potentially problematic impulses.
Anger And Aggression
Expressing anger too frequently or in an extreme or harmful way will likely have negative consequences for our relationships or reputation. To avoid negative outcomes, we can use sublimation psychology as one method to redirect those learned behaviors and drives. For instance:
- A person is angry with their neighbor. Instead of giving in to the impulse to pick a fight or yell at them, they may channel this angry energy into a home improvement project. With every strike of the hammer or lap of the lawnmower, they’re using the power of the anger to avoid doing something they’ll regret and to do something positive instead.
- A person can’t stop thinking about how angry they are with their boss after they were reprimanded by them at work. Rather than quitting on the spot or saying something they’d regret, they decide to take the long walk home instead of the train. By the time they arrive, their anger has decreased substantially and they have a calmer perspective on the situation—plus, they got some exercise.
- A person is so angry that they feel the urge to express physical aggression. Instead of punching a wall, they go to a gym and sign up for boxing lessons where their aggression can be channeled into other outlets like fitness.
Of course, sexual urges are a natural part of life for most humans and are deeply rooted in our nature. However, there are certain times, places, or situations where acting on a sexual impulse would be inappropriate, unacceptable, or even harmful to others. Here are some examples of how someone might sublimate such unacceptable sexual urges:
- A person is going out of town to a work convention and has the urge to cheat on their spouse with a colleague. They might channel that energy into expanding their professional circle and focusing on networking instead, which can indirectly provide them with career benefits and maintain their relationship.
- A person’s sexual energy for their long-distance partner or unrequited love is distracting them from their responsibilities. They might take up poetry to express their desire, or some form of dance to express that energy.
Sadness Or Frustration
Sublimation can also help to transform other negative feelings into the first steps on a positive path. The following examples of sublimation illustrate how this might work, shaping one's personality and drives behavior in a constructive manner:
- A person is experiencing grief from a breakup or a friendship that ended. Instead of giving in to their impulse to stay in bed for weeks, they might join a volunteer organization to channel their pain into doing something good for others, leading to long term conversion of their emotions.
- A person feels frustrated at work because they don’t have much control over what they do, or they feel their boss treats them unfairly. Instead of checking out, they might channel their frustration into searching for a new job, working toward a promotion to a more powerful position, or even starting their own business.
Is Sublimation Good Or Bad?
Defense mechanisms typically aren't inherently good or bad. The distinction comes in based on how they affect our lives. In general, redirecting the energy from impulses that could be harmful is a good thing because it can benefit both the individual and those around them. However, it’s important to note that redirecting may cause its own problems, too. Constantly rerouting frequent feelings of anger can defend you from harming yourself, others, or your relationships, but it won’t help you get to the root of why you’re so often feeling this way. Or, consider the act of funneling frustration, sadness, or stress into exercise. While building an exercise routine can be highly beneficial to your mental and physical health, overdoing it can lead to the opposite effects: injury, obsessiveness, or even neglect of other areas of life. As mentioned in the journal American Imago (founded by Freud), understanding these defense mechanisms can help individuals to better manage their emotions and psychological well-being.
Getting Help Controlling Impulses
The ability to control our impulses is what allows us to function well together in relationships and as a society. For our own well-being, though, it’s best to do this in a healthy way. This is where the guidance of a mental health professional may be useful. For instance, a therapist can help you examine where potentially problematic impulses may be coming from and craft strategies for sublimation or other ways to handle them. If certain impulses are causing symptoms of anxiety or depression, they may be able to help you identify and manage those as well. Some psychologists believe in regression therapy. This is one technique to help the patient recall painful memories from when they were a child to understand their current mental state and to heal properly from the experience. However, this technique is controversial since many experts are convinced that this can lead to false memories.
For those who feel more comfortable meeting with a therapist virtually, online therapy is an available option. Research suggests that this therapy format offers a viable alternative to in-person sessions, so it may appeal to those who prefer its availability and convenience. With a virtual therapy service like BetterHelp, you can get matched with a licensed therapist with whom you can speak via phone call, video call, and/or chat, to address the challenges you may be facing.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
What is sublimation in psychology?
Sublimation is the channeling of socially unacceptable behaviors into socially acceptable ones. Essentially, you transform unwanted impulses into constructive, or at least socially acceptable, behaviors. This allows you to avoid the anxiety and other potentially harmful feelings associated with the behavior in question.
What are three examples of sublimation?
There are many common real-life examples of sublimation. If, for example, you’re experiencing feelings of anger, your initial impulse might be to yell or lash out. Instead, you might exercise or work on your physical health to channel those negative impulses. Or someone may experience unwanted impulses like certain sexual fantasies that they deal with by putting their energy into a productive outlet like a side hustle. Another example of sublimation would be when someone who has the desire to hurt others starts playing a contact sport to deal with those unacceptable urges.
What is sublimation as a defense mechanism?
Sublimation is a defense mechanism that helps people deal with potentially negative emotions and socially unacceptable impulses by engaging in socially acceptable actions. Sublimation played a part in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, and he believed it was a sign of civilized life. Sublimation allows us to avoid engaging in socially unacceptable behaviors and instead channel that energy into a productive activity such as focusing on physical health.
How do you sublimate your desire?
According to Freud’s sublimation theory, you sublimate your desire by taking potentially unacceptable behaviors or urges and utilizing that psychic energy—whether it’s sexual energy or another type—in a more socially acceptable way. This can be through art, physical activity, or work. There are many examples of sublimation and ways you can make sublimation work for you when it comes to your desire.
How do you sublimate in rage?
Rage can be a dangerous emotion, possibly resulting in harm to yourself or others. Behaviors that can help sublimate rage could be physical activity like running or hitting a punching bag. Another example of sublimation when dealing with rage could be avoiding driving while you’re experiencing anger and instead choosing to walk home.
What is sublimation of instinct?
Sublimation of instinct refers to the process of replacing a desire that may not be healthy or acceptable with actions or behaviors that are considered productive or less aberrant.
Is sublimation positive or negative?
Sublimation is not necessarily positive or negative. It’s simply a way of dealing with unwanted or potentially damaging urges. Experimental evidence has pointed to sublimation is an important defense mechanism from a cultural psychological approach. Sublimation has been used to explain behavior in other contexts, including in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and Harry Stack Sullivan’s theory of interpersonal psychoanalysis.
What did Freud mean by sublimation?
What is sublimation as a defense mechanism?
What is an example of sublimation in counseling?
What is sublimation vs regression?
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