What Is Occupational Therapy And Its Types?
By: William Drake
Updated November 19, 2019
Medically Reviewed By: Lauren Guilbeault
People usually use the word "occupation" to refer to their job. With that in mind, occupational therapy may sound like work, but it's actually unrelated to your profession. Instead, occupational therapy is a field of therapy that has many similarities to physical therapy (PT). Its goal is to allow you to do the things you need to do to take care of yourself. Read on to learn about the many different types of occupational therapy and how they might benefit you.
What Is Occupational Therapy?
Occupational Therapy (OT) is a type of therapy where the therapist helps the client gain or regain skills, so they can complete everyday tasks. These tasks (also known as "occupations") may take place at home, in a nursing home, or in a community.
For example, you may need to be able to drive and go to the grocery store. If you're currently unable to do so, occupational therapists can help you learn or relearn those skills, so you can live independently. Alternatively, a geriatric client in a nursing home might only need support learning to do simpler tasks, such as grooming, socializing, and walking without losing balance.
What Are the Activities of Daily Living?
To understand OT, we need to look at the phrase "activities of daily living." Activities of Daily Living (ADL) is a specific list of occupations that the client needs to do to be able to manage their daily life. Items on the list might include:
- Transferring (being able to move in and out of bed or a chair without help)
- Maintaining continence (having control of your bladder and bowels)
In addition, your occupational therapy program might include other activities, which often fall under the category of Instrumental Daily Activities:
- Community mobility
- Safety procedures
Finally, there are other tasks that may be considered important enough to be routinely included in occupational therapy, including:
- Social interaction
Occupational Therapy Vs Physical Therapy
OT and PT share many of the same goals and attributes. Both are led by educators and trainers, and both help you perform daily living functions. In addition, both may help you heal from and then avoid injuries. However, each type of therapy has its own focus and methods.
The differences between physical and occupational therapy are sometimes subtle and sometimes obvious. Most importantly, they each have different goals. Physical therapy aims to strengthen the muscles, while occupational therapy makes it possible for you to take care of yourself, whether that's physically, mentally, socially, or in another practical way. Of course, it's easier to complete daily tasks when your muscles work as effectively as possible. Therefore, the two types of therapy are often used for the same client during a rehabilitation period.
What Happens in OT?
Occupational therapy sessions consist of education and training, which is usually related to mental tasks or physical strength, coordination, and balance. The therapist may also teach you about how to interact socially and help you practice doing so. Whether you're working on a simple task like bathing or a complex task like driving, the therapist explains what you need to know given your physical and/or mental condition. Eventually, you'll practice that skill until it becomes easier, or you and your therapist will find a different way to solve your ADL challenge.
Occupational therapists and occupational therapy aides work together to provide OT treatments. Clients can be anyone of any age who has physical, mental, or social limitations that stop them from accomplishing their tasks of daily living in a satisfactory manner.
You may need occupational therapy at any time in your life. If you're a child, you might go to OT when a doctor, therapist, or social worker determines that you have a mental or physical condition that will limit your functioning. If, on the other hand, you become disabled, your doctor might recommend occupational therapy at some point. Later in life, your gerontologist might send you to occupational therapy if your mental or physical capabilities are beginning to diminish because of your age or age-related conditions.
Finally, after an injury, you might be referred to OT after you've already been in PT long enough to build the strength needed for your ADL. At that point, occupational therapy classes can help you learn and practice how to do the Activities of Daily Living.
Occupational therapy programs can be found in hospitals, psychiatric facilities, schools, workplaces, clients' homes, medical clinics, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, or independent occupational therapy facilities. Sessions may be carried out in a central location, or they may occur in the client's home or elsewhere in the community.
Occupational Therapy Assessments
Your first session is typically an assessment where the occupational therapist goes through the list of Activities of Daily Living. They'll ask you about any problems you have with your ADL and may request specifics about how you do them. For instance, they might ask you if you have any problems eating. If you respond "no" because you're able to put food in your mouth and swallow, the occupational therapist may ask more specific questions, such as:
- Do you cook your own meals?
- Do you buy your own groceries?
- Do you have someone who does these things for you?
Another part of the assessment will gauge your motivation and find out what you would like to be able to do. You might not be physically and/or mentally fit enough to do everything you would like, or your abilities may be uncertain. The important thing is to set reasonable goals and remember that you can always set new ones after you achieve your current goals.
Finally, the therapist might also request that you perform certain activities during the assessment. For example, they might ask you to get up and down from a chair or bed, so they can observe any difficulties you might have. After the assessment, they'll write up their findings and create a treatment plan. At your second session, the therapist typically reviews the treatment plan with you and may begin working with you that same day.
Occupational Therapy Activities
OT activities can be interesting, but if you don't know why you're doing them, it may be difficult to stay motivated. Your occupational therapist can tell you the purpose of each exercise or activity to help motivate you; in fact, they'll probably tell you before you ask. Even better, most of the activities have an element of fun.
Some of the activities require special equipment, but most of it is fairly inexpensive. Still, the more you can accomplish in your sessions, the less you may have to buy later on when you're continuing to practice by yourself.
Activities can promote physical strength, mental competence, and social ability. You might work on gross motor skills with one activity and fine motor skills with another. For example, you could play games that enhance your ability to react more quickly, while another activity may help you follow directions more closely. Your occupational therapist has a myriad of choices for helping you learn how to complete your Activities of Daily Living more easily and competently.
Types of Occupational Therapy
Because occupational therapy is used for people of all ages and circumstances, occupational therapists can choose from any of a large number of specialties, some of which are listed below.
Pediatric Occupational Therapy
You might be wondering why children might need OT, but you should know that it's often helpful for children or young people who have experienced one of the following conditions:
- A developmental disability
- Mental disorders such as depression or schizophrenia
- Low vision or poor hearing
- Abuse or neglect
- Trouble in school
- Learning disabilities
Children as young as 2-years-old can benefit from occupational therapy if they need it. Regardless of the challenges they face, an occupational therapist can help them succeed.
OT for Autism
Occupational therapy for autism is a specialty where therapists may work with children, adolescents, and adults to help them overcome social and communication difficulties as well as participate in their ADL. Sessions may take place in a school or daycare if the client is a child. For adults with severe autism, the sessions may take place in an adult day care.
Geriatric occupational therapy is usually focused on the most basic Activities of Daily Living. As people age, they may lose their ability to do everyday tasks that most of us take for granted. Chewing and swallowing, bathing, toileting, getting in and out of bed, and controlling our bladder and bowels may slowly become more and more difficult. Others may need to relearn many skills after they're temporarily or partially disabled following a stroke. Also, OT can help older people stay independent in their own home for longer. Furthermore, it can help them deal with Alzheimer's or dementia, arthritis, or any of the other challenges older adults commonly face.
Occupational therapists in this specialty not only help those who are losing their abilities due to age, but also older people who have disabilities or injuries just like anyone else.
OT for Mental Health
Occupational therapy for mental health is a growing field. People with mental disorders such as anxiety/panic attacks, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other mental illnesses are sometimes referred to OT or take OT classes in a hospital setting. In their case, OT can help them learn better self-care and prevent relapse of symptoms.
Occupational therapists who specialize in physical rehabilitation usually work with clients who have been injured or are disabled. People who have been seriously injured usually need occupational therapy for some time before they can resume their normal activities. In addition, people who have always been disabled or who become disabled later in life can also benefit from OT, but they may need to do things differently than most people. The goal is to help them learn to complete their ADL's in the way that's best suited to their condition and situation. This specialty is not physical therapy, but it's usually used in conjunction with PT.
Driving and Community Mobility
For many people, driving is such a crucial skill that it's hard to survive without it in some locations. A driving and community mobility occupational therapist may teach disabled clients how to drive and/or use adaptive equipment. As part of this, they may assess whether the client is even able to drive and, if so, advocate for them in court cases intended to take away their license. In the event that the client is not able to drive, the therapist focuses on other means of community mobility, such as riding the bus or taking a taxi.
How disabled you feel has a lot to do with your environment. If your home isn't well-suited to your condition, you can feel extremely helpless. Occupational therapists who specialize in environmental modification may look at your home, school, and/or workplace to determine if any modifications are needed to support you in living, studying, or working there.
Once they see what you're dealing with, they can create a plan for the modifications. They can also work with a landlord, principal, or home improvement company to ensure the modifications are installed correctly. Typical accommodations include:
- Bathroom grab bars
- Wider doors
- Special hardware such as flat door handles
- Lower or higher kitchen counters according to need
Feeding, Eating, and Swallowing
Feeding, eating and swallowing specialists help you work on these basic survival needs. Because of certain medical conditions or due to age, swallowing can become so difficult that people have to relearn how to do it. Therapy therefore involves the physical skills of feeding, eating, and swallowing, along with the social and cultural aspects of eating.
Low vision specialists in the OT field treat people who have low vision due to an eye disease, injury, or brain injury. They help their clients procure adaptive equipment and teach them how to use it. They also work with optometrists, ophthalmologists, and other vision specialists.
School Systems Specialty
In the OT field, a school systems specialist is just what it sounds like. It's someone who works in schools, whether that's a preschool, elementary school, middle school, or high school. They also help students who are making the transition to another school or from a school to the workplace.
Occupational Therapy Tools Online
The online resources available for occupational therapy have increased tremendously in recent years, especially for children. You can find games, exercises, puzzles, charts, books, equipment, and suggestions with only a few clicks. Here are some resources that might interest you:
Tools for Children
OT Tools for Autism
Tools for Any OT Clients and Their Caregivers
After you've been in occupational therapy for a specified period of time, your therapist will perform an evaluation to find out how far you've progressed. These evaluations are similar to the assessments completed during the first session. After the therapist completes the evaluation, they can then adjust your treatment plan or create a new one based on your progress. This ensures that you stay with the tasks you haven't conquered yet and also advance when you're ready. Your occupational therapy program might change, but the goal is still to help you do your ADL.
Where to Find Help
At this point, you might be wondering how to find occupational therapy near you. In many cases, your doctor or case manager will set it up for you, though your insurance company may limit the occupational therapists they will approve to help you. Luckily, in most cases, you do have some control over who you choose. Either way, be sure to compare occupational therapy programs and costs to get the best help you can afford.
BetterHelp May Be Helpful
If you've been referred to an occupational therapist or have already started sessions, you might want to talk to someone about the reasons you need OT in the first place. Perhaps you're struggling with the limitations of an injury, or you're in pain or discomfort. Alternatively, you might be experiencing depression or anxiety.
Whatever the reason, BetterHelp's licensed counselors are well-qualified to help you overcome emotional obstacles, so you can achieve independence and happiness. Everybody needs well-rounded support at one time or another, and BetterHelp can be a part of your solution. Below are some reviews of BetterHelp counselors from people experiencing similar issues.
"Mark has been a great supportive guide in my struggles. I am very thankful for his ability to shine a light on the specifics of my issues and clear the air so I can see more clearly and have the tools to act in my best self interest."
"Bella is amazing!!! It's like I've known her all my life! Like she knows what I am about to say before I say it! I am not sure how I got so lucky to find her it feels like I'm talking to a great friend but yet I get the best advice and she helps me figure out the best ways to work through my struggles! I feel like I handle stress so much better after talking to her I am forever grateful to have found her."
Occupational therapy may seem intimidating at first, but it's a straightforward process that can help you lead a more fulfilling life. If you need additional support from a counselor along the way, BetterHelp is here for you. All you need are the right tools.