Many people have moments when they forget their keys, lose track of time, or act impulsively, but an individual with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experiences these symptoms so consistently and severely that it substantially interferes with their life. More than simple forgetfulness or trouble concentrating, ADHD is a chronic, neurobiological condition that can last a lifetime and can have profound impacts if undiagnosed.
Many people think of ADHD as a single disorder, but there are three distinct ADHD types: inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and combined. Each type is diagnosed according to a specific configuration of symptoms and based on the degree to which the symptoms cause impairment.
Historically, there was a common misconception that people outgrew ADHD, but now we know that in over 60% of cases, symptoms continue after the age of 18. However, symptoms may display differently in adulthood than in childhood. For example, speaking out in class may shift toward impulsive decision-making. Or daydreaming in school may change to difficulty paying attention in meetings. Additionally, those with high-functioning ADHD may struggle to recognize their symptoms.
Understanding ADHD subtypes can help you better understand and manage this condition.
Hyperactive-impulsive ADHD presents with a lot of the "classic" symptoms that people associate with the condition such as risk-taking, fidgeting, and an inability to sit still. Sometimes, what started as a compulsive need to move your body as a child may turn inward and become an inability to stop your racing thoughts. As an adult, impulsive behavior may be the most noticeable aspect. This symptom could present as buying something you can't afford or speaking unprofessionally with a supervisor, for example.
Hyperactive-impulsive ADHD is more frequently diagnosed in males than in females. If you have this type of ADHD, you may have difficulty thinking about the consequences of your actions. This can lead to difficulties with work, relationships, and other areas of your life. An individual with this subtype may frequently interrupt others during a conversation, take dangerous risks, and seek stimulation in unhealthy ways, for example.
Since hyperactivity tends to be obvious in childhood, this subtype of ADHD is often caught early. However, that's not always the case, especially if the individual has mild ADHD.
Signs of hyperactive-impulsive ADHD include:
- Trouble sitting still for long periods; fidgets a lot
- Fast speech; frequently interrupts others
- Doesn't appear to consider the consequences of their actions
- Acts impulsively, including driving, spending, and relationships
- Chronic impatience; difficulty waiting
- Feelings of restlessness
An individual with inattentive ADHD may have difficulty maintaining focus on a task or conversation, be frequently distracted, and make mistakes due to a lack of attention. Children with inattentive ADHD often fly under the diagnostic radar since they don't usually disrupt the classroom. In adulthood, this subtype can manifest in various ways. For example, you may have difficulty completing work duties, meeting deadlines, or focusing on individual tasks. You probably won't experience many impulsive behavior or hyperactivity issues, but the condition can still create unnecessary stumbling blocks.
Inattentive ADHD used to be referred to as ADD, although the term is no longer used. Primarily inattentive ADHD is thought to be the least common type of ADHD and is slightly more common in females.
Signs of inattentive ADHD include:
- Difficulty following instructions and finishing tasks
- Trouble concentrating; forgetfulness
- Gets distracted easily
- Chronic boredom
- Occasional extreme focus ("hyperfocus") on a stimulating task
- Difficulty following a conversation
- Frequently losing items
ADHD Combined Type
The third and most common type of ADHD is ADHD combined type. As the name suggests, this form of ADHD includes symptoms from both the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive groups. To be diagnosed with combined ADHD, you need to have a combination of at least five of the symptoms from either category. You may not display every symptom, but there should be sufficient evidence of both types.
Other Ways ADHD Can Vary
Mild ADHD might not require intensive treatment, but most people with ADHD benefit from a combination of therapy and medication.
What Causes ADHD?
People with ADHD have lower levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the area of the brain responsible for impulse control, attention, and other so-called "executive functions." This causes difficulty controlling behavior, comprehending long-term consequences, stifling impulses, and sustaining attention. The brains of people with ADHD aren't always "on, " and it takes a higher level of stimulation in this area to get them there. This is why stimulant medication can be effective.
While a great deal of research has been performed to discover the cause of ADHD, mostly in pediatric patients, we're still not sure of the exact cause. Different types of ADHD do not appear to have different causes. ADHD has been shown to have a strong genetic component, and it's not uncommon for adults to seek an evaluation after their children receive a diagnosis. Exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances during pregnancy may increase the child’s chance of developing ADHD.
Video games, excessive TV, and other sources of high stimulation have not been shown to cause ADHD. While many people used to believe excessive consumption of sugar caused ADHD, this is also not the case. A link between exposure to pesticides has been suggested as a cause for increased rates of ADHD being seen in recent years, but more research is needed to make a definitive conclusion.
As we continue to learn about this unique condition, more and more adults are seeking a formal diagnosis. Whether it's at the advice of friends and family, after a problem such as a car accident, or just being fed up with late appointments and disorganization, something drives the individual to seek an ADHD diagnosis.
ADHD is diagnosed using the latest version of the DSM, the manual used as the official resource for determining mental disorders. Adults must regularly display five or more of the symptoms outlined in the DSM under one of the subtypes to be formally diagnosed. Moreover, evidence of these symptoms should be present before age 12.
A formal diagnosis of ADHD is made by a psychiatrist, psychologist, or another health professional with experience in diagnosing developmental disorders. Complete diagnosis may take several appointments, depending on the provider. They will perform an in-depth interview with you, asking questions about your symptoms and how they affect you.
Not everyone who displays hyperactivity or inattentiveness has ADHD, of course. The diagnosis depends on the length of time the symptoms have been present and the degree to which the individual is negatively affected. Other conditions that can mimic ADHD, such as depression or OCD, need to be ruled out as well. These conditions can coexist with ADHD, and if that is the case, they may need separate treatment.
If you are diagnosed with any type of ADHD, many effective treatments are available to help you manage the condition. The better you understand your particular type of ADHD, the better you can customize your treatment.
For children and teens, behavioral interventions such as therapy are usually attempted before medication. Most adults with ADHD also benefit from working with a therapist to help them develop strategies for managing their symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most researched form of talk therapy for ADHD and involves recognizing and changing negative thought patterns.
Different types of ADHD may respond better to one medication than another. Stimulant medication is approved to treat ADHD in adults as well as children. Stimulants work by increasing the amount of dopamine and norepinephrine in certain parts of the brain that can increase focus, improve working memory, and direct impulse control.
Non-stimulant medication is also available for those who don't respond well to stimulants. This medication must be taken for several weeks before the desired effect is achieved.
Should You Try Medication?
The choice to try medication is always up to the individual. Stimulants can be effective in up to 80% of cases, and the risk of side effects is quite low. However, many people choose to forgo medication. It's up to your personal preference. There are many lifestyle changes and behavioral modifications that can help you effectively manage your adult ADHD with or without medication.
Working With A Therapist
Some people with ADHD may experience difficulties managing in-person therapy appointments. After all, symptoms of the condition like disorganization and forgetfulness can make it challenging to show up to these office visits on time. Online therapy is another option. Many people with ADHD and other mental health conditions find internet-based treatments to be more convenient and accessible. With BetterHelp, for instance, you can connect with a therapist any time of day or night from the comfort of your home.
This type of treatment protocol has been found to be effective in treating ADHD as well. A 2022 meta-study evaluated the effects of online therapy on individuals diagnosed with the condition. The outcome indicated a positive effect on both attention deficit and social function.
Is ADHD an illness or coping mechanism?
ADHD, or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, is classified as a mental health condition by the American Psychiatric Association. It is not a coping mechanism, but rather a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.
Can I ever live a normal life with ADHD?
Absolutely, many individuals with ADHD lead fulfilling and successful lives. With proper management through ADHD medications, including stimulant and non-stimulant ADHD medications, behavioral training, and support from family members and healthcare professionals like a child psychiatrist, individuals can manage symptoms effectively.
What are some ways people cope with ADHD?
People with ADHD often benefit from a combination of treatments. These include stimulant medications, which are commonly prescribed, and non-stimulant medications. Behavioral training and therapies can also be effective. Strategies for managing careless mistakes, impulsive behaviors, and difficulty sustaining attention can significantly improve a person’s life.
Is ADHD developmental or mental health?
ADHD is a mental disorder, according to the American Psychiatric Association that is considered to affect behavior, emotions, and learning.
Does ADHD affect personality?
ADHD can influence a person’s behavior, which might be misconstrued as a personality trait. For example, individuals with the hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD may exhibit impulsive behaviors, which can be a part of their behavioral pattern.
Does ADHD affect memory?
Yes, ADHD can affect memory. Individuals with ADHD may experience difficulty sustaining attention, which can impact their ability to remember information.
Is ADHD a genetic disorder or trauma-related?
Research suggests that ADHD has a strong genetic component, making it a commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder. While trauma can exacerbate symptoms, it is not the sole cause of ADHD.
Is ADHD a learning difficulty?
ADHD is not classified as a learning difficulty per se, but it can interfere with a child’s ability to learn, due to symptoms like making careless mistakes and having difficulty sustaining attention. It requires tailored approaches in education to support the child’s behavior and learning.
What is the impact of ADHD on mental health?
ADHD can have a significant impact on mental health. The challenges associated with managing ADHD symptoms can lead to increased stress and may contribute to the development of other mental health conditions, necessitating the involvement of mental health professionals and sometimes the prescription of antidepressant medications.
How treatable is ADHD?
ADHD is a highly treatable condition. A combination of ADHD medications, including both stimulant and non-stimulant options, behavioral training, support from family members, and resources like the National Resource Center on ADHD can all contribute to effective management of the disorder.
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