Psychology and psychiatry are both concerned with how the mind works, and they have many principles and practices in common. This often makes it difficult to differentiate between the two. In fact, it's not unusual to find people who assume the two fields are one and the same, which results in the common habit of using the terms interchangeably. However, while psychology and psychiatry are similar and often work in tandem to provide the best patient care, they do have several key differences. In this article, we'll compare psychology and psychiatry to show how these differences can affect an individual's diagnosis and treatment.
What's The Difference Between Psychology And Psychiatry?
As we'll discuss in this article, there are a number of differences between psychologists and psychiatrists, as well as differences in their respective evaluations.
The right approach for any given individual can depend on their condition, the severity of the condition, their personal preferences, and their geographical area.
What Are The Similarities?
Over the course of this article, we'll also see that there are a number of similarities between psychologists and psychiatrists. Both work to help patients overcome mental and emotional obstacles to living happy and healthy lives, and they often work together to achieve this goal.
What Is Psychology?
The American Psychological Association defines psychology as "the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes." In other words, psychology focuses on society as a whole as well as on interactions between individuals.
What Is Psychiatry?
The American Psychiatric Association defines psychiatry as being "focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders." In other words, psychiatry is a medical science that considers the social and biological context of individuals.
Similarities And Differences Between Psychology And Psychiatry At A Glance
- Both psychologists and psychiatrists have a doctorate
- Both fields involve intensive study and training
- Both professionals have some of the same diagnostic tools
- Psychologists usually have experience in an array of talk therapies
- In most states, only psychiatrists can prescribe medication
- Psychiatrists can use physical treatments, such as shock therapy
- Psychiatrists often handle the most severe mental health cases
Psychology Vs Psychiatry: Education And Training
Both psychiatrists and psychologists are doctors who have completed intensive courses combining both education and training. In brief, psychiatrists are medical doctors who have received the distinction of Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.). Psychologists, on the other hand, have completed a doctoral degree that entitles them to be addressed as "doctor" and have received either a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Psychology or Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.).
Psychiatrists complete the same medical school education as all other medical doctors. They learn all about the different systems in the body, including various illnesses that can affect these systems and how these illnesses can be identified and treated. They take courses in anatomy, behavioral science, biochemistry, neuroscience, and psychiatry, among many other areas. In addition, they're exposed to working in a minimum of six specialist areas.
To specialize in psychiatry, doctors also spend at least four years focusing on psychiatry in residency training. As part of this residency, they train in a variety of medical settings with patients of all age ranges, gaining exposure to the diversity of mental health conditions that patients face. Upon completion of their residency, most opt to apply for certification with the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Some also choose to pursue further study in a subspecialty, such as child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, or addiction psychiatry.
As mentioned above, psychologists follow a different route. They must first complete doctoral studies, typically earning either a Ph.D. or a Psy.D. Following this, graduates are required to fulfill a one- to two-year residency. This provides them with a practical setting where they can gain experience in methods of treatment and problem-solving techniques.
Different states have different requirements for psychologists. In some states, they must work an extra one to two years under the guidance and supervision of an authorized mental health professional before being fully recognized as a psychologist. Areas of specialization within psychology include clinical psychology, behavioral and cognitive psychology, and family psychology. Psychologists can attain certification in their specialty from the American Board of Professional Psychology.
In summary, when it comes to education and training, the main difference between psychologists and psychiatrists is the focus of their studies. However, both are concerned with why people think and behave the way that they do.
Psychology Vs Psychiatry: Diagnosing Patient Issues
There is a vast difference in the way that both fields diagnose patients’ mental health challenges, mainly because of the differences in their education and training. Based on their studies, a psychiatrist often looks for physical or chemical explanations, while a psychologist may look for social or personal explanations.
Psychiatrists are medical doctors who can draw upon diagnostics tests, including medical laboratory tests and computerized tomography (CT) scans. In order to specifically label a mental health condition, psychiatrists rely on the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Within this manual are descriptions of the various mental disorders and the criteria used to diagnose each illness.
Both psychiatrists and psychologists use a variety of psychological tests and assessments. Psychologists, however, usually receive extensive training in administering and interpreting these tests. They also use the DSM-5 in their work.
Psychology Vs. Psychiatry: Treatment Options
In this section, we'll discuss the three most common treatment options.
As trained medical doctors, psychiatrists are legally authorized to prescribe medication. Much of the work they do with patients centers on treating chemical imbalances in the brain and managing medication. Their medical training means that psychiatrists may also take other factors into consideration. Through physical examination and possible tests, they try to eliminate other possible causes for a patient's condition before prescribing a course of medication.
In most states, psychologists who want a patient to begin medication or reassess their current dosage must refer the patient to a psychiatrist or another medical doctor. However, there are currently states where psychologists have prescribing powers for certain psychiatric medications. There is also a push for more states to follow suit and widen the scope of treatments psychologists can offer to their patients. Many common emotional and mental disorders are most effectively and efficiently treated with a combination of talk therapy and medication.
Psychotherapy, which is also known as talk therapy, involves talking with patients about the concerns they're facing and helping them to:
- Identify circumstances in their lives (such as divorce or the death of a loved one) that are contributing to their mental health concerns.
- Become aware of any behaviors or emotions that are contributing to their condition.
- Make use of behavior modification techniques.
- Develop healthy coping strategies and appropriate problem-solving techniques.
It's not uncommon for a psychiatrist to refer patients to a psychologist so they may benefit from the psychologist's specific area of psychotherapy expertise.
Psychologists engage in many types of talk therapy, depending on which approach or combination of approaches they think will most help a particular patient.
- Psychoanalysis. This method focuses on helping patients to discover, examine, and learn to cope with repressed thoughts and emotions that may be buried deep in their unconscious mind. It's an in-depth method of psychotherapy that has been proven effective for patients dealing with depression, personality disorders, persistent relationship issues, emotional challenges, and trauma, as well as self-destructive behavior patterns.
- Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). CBT seeks to change the way patients behave in difficult situations by changing their thought patterns. CBT is a short-term approach used to treat current problems patients are facing, such as anxiety, stress, anger, and eating disorders.
- Cognitive analytic therapy (CAT). Using CAT, a psychotherapist aims to help patients identify early experiences that may be contributing to their current mental health challenges. For example, overly controlling parenting often leads to an overly rebellious nature in adolescence or adulthood. Patients in CAT are typically actively involved in the process, helping to develop strategies that will curb their maladaptive behaviors.
- Gestalt therapy. This client-centered form of psychotherapy is often used for patients who are experiencing relationship difficulties, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. It has also been shown to have positive effects in cases where patients' emotional stress is manifested physically through migraine headaches and back spasms. Gestalt therapy encourages bringing possibly painful concerns to the surface using methods like drama or art so they can be addressed positively in an environment where patients feel safe.
- Hypno-psychotherapy. This approach the clinical use of hypnosis to augment psychotherapeutic interventions. It's meant for the treatment of deep psychological challenges and psychiatric illness through selective attention and suggested experiences. Hypno-psychotherapy is often combined with CBT in a treatment known as cognitive/behavior hypnotherapy (CBH).
- Dance/movement therapy (DMT). This is an expressive therapy, and in some instances it's referred to as movement psychotherapy. It draws on the well-researched relationship between movement and emotion. Dance/movement therapy is sometimes applied in the treatment of eating disorders and poor self-image.
- Art therapy. This is another expressive form of therapy in which art is used to release patients' emotions. In addition, the art that patients produce is often evaluated by the therapist for underlying signs of a mental health condition. It's often used in the treatment of children and adolescents, but it has also proven effective for adults.
- Integrative or holistic therapy. This is practiced by some psychologists who believe that a fusion of different therapies is the best approach to take with a particular individual.
As medical doctors, psychiatrists are trained in a diverse array of physical treatments that can be used with patients. However, these are most often reserved for severe cases of mental illness, and some treatments are known for being controversial.
Some treatments listed by the American Psychiatric Association include:
- Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Also known as shock therapy, ECT involves the use of electrical currents to the brain to induce seizures in order to treat severe depression, catatonia, and mania.
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This treatment entails the non-invasive use of a magnetic field generator to stimulate certain areas of the brain. It has been used effectively in patients whose severe depression does not respond to medication.
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS). In this treatment, a neurostimulator (i.e., a brain pacemaker) is implanted in the patient's brain. Electrical impulses are then used to treat conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
- Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). This is another treatment where electrical stimulation is applied to the brain to treat medication-resistant depression.
- Light therapy. This relatively new technique is used to treat both seasonal and non-seasonal depression.
Psychology Vs. Psychiatry: Which Is Right For You?
When you're trying to decide between using psychiatry and psychology to treat a mental health concern, there are two important factors to keep in mind: 1) severity and type of mental health condition and 2) the approach with which you’re most comfortable.
Severity And Type Of Illness
Psychiatrists often treat the most complex mental illnesses. These include schizophrenia, severe depression, highly irrational thoughts, and bipolar disorder, as well as conditions that are physically disabling for the patient. Individuals who are suicidal, whether they're having suicidal thoughts* or they have attempted suicide, will also usually be treated by a psychiatrist instead of a psychologist. However, in the case of behavioral problems, mild forms of depression, anxiety, phobias, or learning difficulties, the skills of a psychologist may be the most appropriate.
* If you or a loved one is experiencing suicidal thoughts, reach out for help immediately. The 988 Suicide and Crisis Lifeline can be reached at 988 and is available 24/7.
Approach With Which You're Most Comfortable
The difference in the way that psychology and psychiatry approach treatment means that some people may feel more comfortable with one than the other. For instance, people who are cautious about the side effects of medication or about taking medication in general may gravitate toward the services of a psychologist.
Also, treatment by a psychotherapist is usually more time intensive because it often requires weekly sessions, and sessions are normally longer than those with a psychiatrist. Psychiatrists generally see patients for shorter sessions on a weekly or monthly schedule to focus on medication management.
Unfortunately, many people also make their decision based on their geographic location and ability to pay. Medication is more likely to be covered by insurance. However, there are several talk therapy options (such as online therapy through BetterHelp) that cost about the same as insurance co-pays for therapy.
If you or a loved one is experiencing a mental health challenge, you don’t have to face it alone. Your course of treatment may involve working with a psychologist, a psychiatrist, or both. If you're interested in talk therapy, consider a service like BetterHelp. Research has found that online therapy is just as effective as in-person therapy in most cases, and it offers the convenience of being able to talk with a therapist from the comfort of your home in a format that you prefer. You can connect with a licensed therapist via phone or video chat, in addition to contacting them in between sessions via in-app messaging.
If you are not sure about the idea of online therapy, read the following reviews of BetterHelp counselors from people experiencing a range of challenges.
"My conversations with Jennifer have really been helping me grow and learn more about myself. I can tell that she is very knowledgeable as well as being very committed to her clients…. Jennifer has created an open, welcoming, and non-judgmental environment where I am not afraid to be myself. I would certainly recommend Jennifer to anyone interested in counseling."
"Tara has been the most impactful counselor I've had. After over a year of talking with her, I have reached the point where I am able to troubleshoot my anxiety and stress on my own because of our weekly sessions. She has helped me learn how to process difficult life transitions and I couldn't be more grateful. This platform and program has been a life saver."
What is the difference between psychological and psychiatric evaluation?
While both types of evaluations are similar in many ways and are equally important, they serve different purposes and are conducted by mental health professionals with different training and expertise.
Psychological evaluations are typically conducted by licensed psychologists or professionals like neuropsychologists or clinical psychologists, often with a doctoral-level education and advanced training in administering psychological assessments and diagnosing mental and emotional conditions.
Psychiatrists with medical degrees and specialized training in psychiatry typically conduct psychiatric evaluations. Psychiatrists are trained to diagnose and treat mental disorders and can prescribe medication when necessary.
There are other critical differences between psychological vs psychiatric evaluations:
Scope And Focus
Psychological evaluations typically focus on assessing a patient's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning. They often involve testing, assessments, and other activities, such as interviewing friends or family to understand a patient's thoughts, emotions, personality, and behavior. These evaluations help with understanding underlying psychological issues, personality traits, and emotional well-being.
Psychiatric evaluations primarily focus on diagnosing and treating mental illnesses and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric assessments identify symptoms, provide diagnoses based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and develop treatment plans, which may include medication management and therapy.
Tools And Methodology
Psychological evaluations may use a variety of standardized psychological tests and assessments to gain insight into an individual's mental and emotional state. These may include personality tests, intelligence tests, neuropsychological assessments, and projective tests.
Psychological tests may be used within a psychiatric evaluation, but the focus is generally on diagnosing and treating psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric assessment typically involves clinical interviews and discussions to gather information about a person's mental health history, symptoms, and daily functioning.
Psychological evaluations may lead to recommendations for counseling, psychotherapy, behavior modification, and other non-pharmacological treatments.
In addition to the other forms of treatment a psychologist would follow, psychiatric evaluations can result in prescribing medications to manage psychiatric symptoms.
Is a psychiatric assessment a psychological evaluation?
No, a psychiatric and psychological evaluation aren't the same, although they may include some of the same assessment tools.
Are psychological and psychiatric disorders the same?
Psychological and psychiatric disorders involve disturbances in mental functioning and behavior, but their differences lie in the nature of the disorders, the professionals involved in diagnosis and treatment, and the approach to treatment.
A psychologist or an experienced, licensed mental health professional with the same credentials can diagnose and treat psychological disorders. These types of conditions may range from mild to severe and may not always require medication for treatment.
Psychiatric disorders are mental health conditions typically diagnosed and treated by psychiatrists who have earned a medical degree and completed medical training with a specialized focus on mental health. These disorders may involve more severe, complex conditions requiring medication and/or medical interventions.
What is considered a psychological evaluation?
A psychological evaluation may include comprehensive screening and assessment of factors including, but not limited to, a patient's functioning in learning, cognitive processing, behavior, affect, and social skills.
Why do they do a psychological evaluation?
Psychological evaluations are used to diagnose mental health issues, including behavioral, emotional, and developmental disorders.
What is the psychiatric evaluation test called?
A psychiatric evaluation is called a Mental Status Examination (MSE). It is a thorough, structured evaluation of a patient's behavioral, emotional, and cognitive functioning. The test may include the psychiatrist's observations of a patient's level of alertness and attentiveness, speech and motor functioning, mood, perception, insight, and appearance, among other things.
Is a psychological evaluation a diagnosis?
A psychological evaluation and diagnosis aren't the same thing, as evaluations are used as a tool to help establish a diagnosis.
Does a psychologist or psychiatrist diagnose?
Both psychologists and psychiatrists can diagnose mental disorders, but a psychiatrist is trained to diagnose mental health disorders involving physical factors such as neurological issues and chemical functioning.
Is anxiety considered a mental disorder?
People sometimes use the term anxiety to describe a state of stress, but it refers to a range of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, and panic disorder.
What is the difference between psychological and behavioral diagnosis?
A psychological diagnosis aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of an individual's mental health based on psychological symptoms, thoughts, emotions, and subjective experiences.
A psychologist, psychiatrist, or other qualified mental health professional may obtain a diagnosis via clinical interviews, standardized tests, assessments, observations, neuropsychological tests, and other tools. These tools are meant to measure a patient's cognitive processes, emotional functioning, and interpersonal relationships. Mental health professionals typically consult the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) when establishing a diagnosis.
A behavioral diagnosis, on the other hand, primarily focuses on observable and measurable behaviors rather than internal psychological processes. These diagnoses are often made by behavior analysts, behavior therapists, or qualified professionals with proper training in the same peer group
Behavioral diagnoses aim to identify specific behavioral patterns, deficits, or excesses that may indicate whether a patient has a developmental or behavioral disorder. Tools used in diagnosing behavioral disorders include direct observation, information gathering, and long-term behavior analysis.
Psychological and behavioral diagnoses may be used in tandem to provide a comprehensive assessment of an individual's mental health or behavioral concerns, and treatments may be tailored accordingly to address both psychological and behavioral aspects.
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