What Is An Art Therapist?

Medically reviewed by Elizabeth Erban, LMFT, IMH-E
Updated March 15, 2023by BetterHelp Editorial Team
Art therapists often use bipolar art therapy techniques in health and community settings to treat various mental health disorders. They usually work with clients who live with a mental health disorder, need help in coping with daily stressors, and want to achieve a higher level of personal fulfillment through the healthy medium of creative self-expression. This type of therapist often encourages their clients to express themselves by creating art with a variety of mediums and then interpreting the art they create. Art therapy can be completed in person or online. If you want to learn more what is art therapy all about, continue reading this article.
Learn To Heal Through Creative Expression.

The Evolution Of Art Therapy 

During the 1940s, art therapy began to develop as a therapeutic discipline in Europe and the United States. Adrian Hill, a British World War I veteran, discovered art therapy by accident as he spent many days drawing while he was recovering in a tuberculosis sanitorium. Labor statistics and the warring state of the world are thought to have contributed to mental health disorders running rampant at the time. Hill is believed to have been the first to coin the term "art therapy" in his book titled Art Versus Illness.

Edward Adamson built on Hill's work, using it in mental health hospitals. Adamson often encouraged patients to create art for self-expression, not necessarily to be interpreted by therapists, but for personal growth and benefit. 

Psychologist Margaret Naumburg was one of the first U.S. pioneers in art therapy. Naumburg often encouraged her patients to use free association to release their unconscious thoughts and feelings, which she believed were representative of symbolic speech. Her patients frequently interpreted and analyzed their results.

Dr. Edith Kramer was another U.S. pioneer in art therapy. Austrian-born Kramer founded the first art therapy program at New York University in 1944.

The greatest time of growth for art therapy is often thought to have occurred during the mid-1950s, when it gradually became accepted as a beneficial clinical discipline that could be effective for all types of growth in children. Today, expressive arts therapy can be an important tool for assessing and treating people of all ages and can even be effectively used within families.

What To Look For In An Art Therapist

By having a better understanding of what's required to be an art therapist, it may be easier to evaluate whether art therapy would be a good fit for your needs. An art therapist is generally a mental health professional and an artist, but the focus of their education is almost always on mental health. 

The minimum education level for an art therapist is typically a master's degree in art therapy from an American Art Therapy Association (AATA)-accredited program. Depending on where they practice, the art therapist may also be required to obtain state licenses, AATA certification, or both, and abide by all ethical standards set by the AATA.

It's usually not necessary for art therapists to be gifted artists. However, helping and healing others through art therapy normally requires art therapists to have a foundational understanding of visual art. You should expect your art therapist to practice with various art mediums, such as painting, drawing, sculpture, pottery-making, and other art forms. 

The practice of art therapy usually requires education in human development, counseling theory, and therapeutic techniques. Art therapists should generally have the training to successfully guide their patients through the creative process and educate them on how it works to improve well-being.

Where Can I Find An Art Therapist?

Art therapists may work in many different therapeutic and community settings. Here are several of the most common settings for art therapy treatment.

  1. Medical and psychiatric hospitals and clinics

  2. Outpatient treatment facilities, including colleges and universities

  3. Shelters

  4. Correctional institutions

  5. Nursing homes and assisted living communities

  6. Halfway houses

  7. Residential facilities

  8. Rehabilitation care units

  9. Wellness centers

  10. Forensic institutions

  11. Clinical research facilities

  12. Detention centers

  13. Crisis centers

  14. The client’s personal residence

What Does An Art Therapy Session Look Like?

Art therapists sometimes work alone, but mental health disorders can be complex to treat. For this reason, art therapists more commonly work as part of a multi-disciplinary team that may include a combination of doctors, nurses, rehabilitation staff, social workers, and teachers. 

Just as it can be important to understand what an art therapist does, it can also be important to know what they don't do in their job. An art therapist usually doesn't teach art and doesn't critique the client's art. 

Using a specific project, an art therapist typically guides clients to discover underlying messages within their art. Therapists may then combine the results with psychotherapeutic counseling techniques to foster self-awareness, build coping skills, process information, improve relationships, and promote personal development. Art therapy for older adults, to be specific, is often successful in treating complex disorders when combined with other treatment modalities.

How And Why Does Art Therapy Work?

Art therapy usually works in two distinct ways. Art therapists may use it as a way for patients to express themselves freely, much like Hill and Adamson did in the 1940s. Art therapists may guide the activities, but they normally don't critique the client's work or attempt to analyze it. It can merely be a way for clients to turn their thoughts and emotions into an art form.

The second way that art therapy can prove beneficial is for the art therapist to choose an art project that allows the patient to create art while thinking about the process and the medium. This form of art therapy may help people develop skills that increase their cognitive ability, increase awareness of themselves and their interactions with others, and use art as therapy and coping mechanism.

There may be an infinite number of ideas for art therapy projects. When interviewing a potential therapist, you might ask for some examples of their favorite projects and why they think they can be helpful.

How Do I Know If An Art Therapist Can Help?

According to the American Art Therapy Association, art therapy can be useful as a form of psychotherapy for those who experience trauma or illness, have difficulty coping with the challenges of daily life, and desire a sense of personal fulfillment.

Art therapy can be especially helpful for the following:

  • Medical impairments

  • Educational difficulties

  • Developmental disorders

  • Psycho-social impairment

  • Trauma-related issues resulting from neglect, abuse, combat, or natural disaster

  • Traumatic brain injuries

  • Cancer

  • Depression

  • Autism

  • Personality disorders

  • Dementia

  • Severe stress and anxiety

  • Grief

  • Behavioral disorders in children

In addition to treating individuals, art therapists may also work with couples who need help with emotional conflicts and families that need help healing relationships.

Learn To Heal Through Creative Expression.

Online Art Therapy

You may find qualified art therapists with specialized education within your own community. You can also find online art therapists who practice virtually. As this study shows, art therapy delivered online can be effective in improving mental health. Online therapy may be more accessible for those in remote areas or those who do not have art therapists in their local area. Attending therapy from the comfort of home may also remove some of the anxiety that can come from connecting with a therapist in person.

Takeaway

Art therapy is a type of treatment that can be used alone or in conjunction with other treatments for a wide demographic of people. Art therapy can be applied to countless illnesses and disorders. It’s one of the few treatment modalities that can be successfully used with a wide variety of ages, including very young children, adolescents, adults, and senior citizens coping with the many challenges of daily life.

Art therapy practitioners may treat a range of people in their practice, from those who desire a higher quality of life to those with complex psychological challenges. Art therapy can work well as a stand-alone therapy and as a component of other physical and mental health treatment programs, and it can be completed in person or online.

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