Signs Of ADHD In Children, Teens, And Adults

Medically reviewed by Andrea Brant, LMHC
Updated February 2, 2023by BetterHelp Editorial Team

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately 5.2% of adults in the United States. While ADHD is typically diagnosed in childhood, it often persists into the individual’s teen years and can continue through adulthood.

Given the disorder’s prevalence and potential longevity, it can help to understand the different signs of ADHD at various ages. This article will cover the common signs and symptoms of ADHD in children, teens, and adults to help you better recognize its often-varied manifestations.

ADHD In Toddlers

Although most do not meet the minimum age requirement to be officially diagnosed with ADHD, toddlers can display some symptoms of the disorder.  of ADHD in toddlers include restlessness, distractibility, impatience, overly bold behavior, and joining in play without being invited. However, these early indicators of ADHD may not necessarily signal the presence of the disorder since they are already common among toddlers. While such behaviors often predict a diagnosis later in childhood, it is usually only in extreme cases that ADHD will be diagnosed in toddlers. Many professionals recommend waiting to see if these types of symptoms persist into childhood.

ADHD In Children

Because ADHD is usually diagnosed during childhood, knowing how its symptoms can show up in children can be vital. It is estimated that there are over 2.5 million children aged 3-11 in the United States who are living with ADHD

Symptoms

There are three different types of ADHD that an individual can develop: inattentive type, impulsive/hyperactive type, and combined type. To meet an official diagnosis, children usually must display six of the symptoms from the hyperactivity/impulsivity category or six from the inattentive category.

Inattentiveness

This group of symptoms involves being easily distracted, not completing tasks, and being disorganized. Usually, teachers more easily observe these symptoms while children are at school.

Hyperactivity/Impulsivity

One of the most noticeable symptoms of ADHD is a child's energy level, which can look like difficulty sitting still, excessive fidgeting, and talking for extended periods. This symptom class often also manifests in impatience, interruptions, and trouble waiting for one’s turn. Although most children are impulsive at times, children with ADHD can have even more difficulty making measured decisions.

As children age into their teenage years and adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms may decline while symptoms of inattentiveness persist. For this reason, signs of ADHD in teens may look more similar to those in adults than those in children. The symptoms of ADHD can be further classified based on whether they affect the child’s behavior, mood, or cognitive function:

Behavioral: Hyperactive and impulsive symptoms of ADHD often fit into this category. Behavioral symptoms include irritability, aggression, and repetitive word use.

Cognitive: These symptoms include inattentiveness, difficulty focusing for extended periods, and trouble prioritizing tasks. Cognitive symptoms are not always obvious in children since they may not know how to describe these concerns to an adult.

Mood: Children with ADHD can have mood swings that shift rapidly from excitability to aggression to sadness. Other children may not have severe mood swings but may be excitable, aggressive, anxious, or easily bored. Mood symptoms can be exacerbated when other mood disorders, such as depression, develop alongside ADHD. These symptoms are sometimes hard to identify in children since mood is an internal process that can manifest itself in certain behaviors.

Because ADHD can often look like numerous other disorders, experts suggest observing your child in different settings (they may behave a certain way specifically at home or school) or asking teachers, nannies, friends' parents, or anyone else who spends time around your child whether they have insights into behaviors that could signal the presence of ADHD. For a diagnosis, however, it is necessary to have the child tested by a healthcare professional, who can assess them, determine whether they’re living with ADHD, and answer questions.

Treatment Options

Treatment for ADHD often differs depending on the age of the child. For instance, in children aged four to five, treatment is usually focused on behavioral therapy facilitated by a teacher or parent, and medication is used only in cases where children have severe symptoms and behavioral therapy has been unsuccessful. The AAP has recommended that behavioral therapy should come first, and that medication should only be offered as a last resort. Speaking with a mental health professional can provide more guidance for treatment options, as well as assistance in helping parents engage in behavioral therapy with their child.

ADHD In Teens And Adults

The National Resource Center on ADHD estimates that at least 10 million adults are living with ADHD in the US. To be diagnosed, adults normally must have had signs of ADHD before age 12 but need to have fewer symptoms currently present than children to be diagnosed. Signs of adult ADHD are usually noticeable when the individual is performing tasks at work, completing college classes, or trying to finish projects. However, unlike children, adults with ADHD usually do not have the same energy and therefore may not display many of the hyperactive symptoms. Therefore, the symptoms of ADHD can become more internal during adulthood and may manifest more in cognitive difficulties.

An adult with ADHD may or may not have been diagnosed as a child, but they usually report having struggled with completing tasks or staying focused during their life. For many people with ADHD, the symptoms may change over time or be better controlled through behavioral therapy, but they do not go away. Others, however, will show improvement or even a lack of symptoms over time. Adults with ADHD often report experiencing the following:

  • Mind that races and produces disordered thoughts

  • Anxiety from environmental overstimulation

  • Feeling like they have brain fog

  • Difficulty completing tasks because of distractibility

  • Trouble organizing their space 

  • Time blindness makes punctuality difficult

For teens, the symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity may decline over time from childhood as symptoms of attentiveness persist; but this is not always the case. As teens are faced with greater academic demands, and potentially begin working, signs of ADHD may differ from those seen in children. If a teen is finding that focusing on tasks is difficult, and their mind is racing, they may want to speak with someone about the potential of having ADHD. As college is a time that is difficult for many individuals with ADHD, seeking treatment before attending school can help teens have a more pleasant experience.

Treatment Options

Looking For Help Managing Symptoms Of ADHD?

As with children, treatment options for teens and adults with ADHD include behavioral therapy and medication. During therapy, teens and adults may learn skills that can help them organize, focus, and sustain productivity. Also, therapy can be offered in a group format for those who would like an aspect of social support and useful insights into managing ADHD from other people who are experiencing symptoms. A medical or mental health professional will usually create a plan that includes treatment options that are appropriate given the specific symptoms present.

Online Therapy For ADHD

There is an increasingly large amount of research suggesting that online therapy can help address the symptoms of ADHD. In a meta-analysis of six studies that included over 250 participants, researchers found that online therapy could effectively treat ADHD symptoms and facilitate care for those who may be hesitant to meet with a therapist face to face. In addition to finding a decrease in symptoms of ADHD, the analysis points to the convenience of online therapy as an advantage compared to in-person treatment.

If you’re living with symptoms of ADHD or a similar mental health-related challenge, online therapy can be a convenient and accessible method of care. If you're living with ADHD, you may not want to have to schedule additional time for commuting to a therapist’s office. With an online therapy platform like BetterHelp, you can connect with a therapist remotely, through video calls, voice calls, or in-app messaging. You can also go back and read messages with your therapist that are kept in a journal format, which may help you remember important points or reinforce specific concepts.

Takeaway

Because ADHD can look different at various stages of life, knowing how its symptoms manifest in children, teens, and adults can be helpful. If you think you may be living with ADHD, a mental health professional can help you understand how ADHD symptoms may be affecting you and give you tips for managing them. And if you’d like a convenient and accessible method of treatment, consider reaching out to a therapist online. No matter your age, you deserve support as you manage symptoms of ADHD and live a healthy, happy life. 

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