An Overview Of Selective Memory
By Nadia Khan
Updated December 19, 2018
Reviewer Aaron Horn
Virtually everyone has heard the term "selective memory" at least once in their lives. Generally this is used critically or sarcastically; nevertheless, the ability to truly understand the ins and outs of selective memory and all that it entails can truly come in handy.
First and foremost, selective memory (also sometimes referred to as selective amnesia) is clinically defined as "the ability to retrieve certain facts and events but not others." In most cases, an individual who genuinely suffers from selective amnesia may forget certain significant events or milestones in their lives, such as skills, friendships, relationships, abilities, or even prior traumatic experiences.
Potential Triggers Of Selective Memory
Many scientists and psychologists have devoted countless hours towards studying selective memory and potential factors which can trigger its occurrence. Even though new research is conducted each day, Out of the Fog affirms that one's emotional state has a vast impact on their memory or subsequent lack thereof.
Individuals who have personality disorders or other similar ailments are more susceptible to emotional highs and lows. (A great example of this is bipolar disorder which is generally associated with manic highs and depressive lows.) Extreme, emotional highs and lows are moreover linked to mental functions, similarly to memory. People who have various personality disorders may experience a phenomenon where their feelings are so intense that they outweigh the proper recollection of an event. This is clinically known as Disassociation, which is regarded as a rather extreme form of selective memory.
Another potential trigger of selective memory comes in the form of poor dieting. The food which people consume impacts their lives in more ways than they can begin to imagine. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that certain foods can have long-term, adverse impacts on an individual's memory and disturb their thinking capabilities.
Preservatives, processed foods/drinks, chemical additives, and foods with high amounts of sugar are all linked to negative effects on the brain, as documented by MindHow. For this reason (and many others), the consumption of healthy foods (fruits, fish, vegetables, poultry, etc.) is strongly encouraged. Processed, sugary foods may taste good; however, that doesn't mean that they ARE good.
Believe it or not, human beings actually do have the power to repress, and eventually forget, certain memories, confirms Telegraph. Intentionally repressing a memory for long enough can cause one to forget it; this occurs because the brain becomes active when someone purposefully works to forget something.
While selective memory is generally regarded as a negative happening, there are certain instances where it can come in handy. A great example of this is in cases of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other painful events which may do more harm than good. Of course, nobody is advised to repress memories as a manner of dealing with challenges from the past. Unresolved, buried issues tend to fester and ooze out in unhealthy manners if they are not dealt with. Therefore, handling problems as they arise is better and much more constructive than simply attempting to forget them.
However, human willpower is sometimes a component which can prompt or enable selective memory.
The human brain and body are always changing. Unfortunately, not all changes are great, especially as people age. Many side effects of aging can rear their ugly heads in the forms of memory problems. Sadly, one symptom of various memory issues can be selective memory or a form of it. Common memory disorders of this nature include, but are not limited to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amnesia, stress, dementia, etc.
More often than not, a healthy lifestyle (exercise, human interactions, nutritious diet) can serve as a deterrent to the memory above ailments.
A Clinical Analysis Of Selective Memory
Many people fail to realize just how layered selective memory can be. Many of these variations come in the form of amnesia or hypermnesia, cites Exploring Your Mind. First and foremost, it is very important to understand that amnesia comes in various forms and degrees. In its mildest capacity, a mild amnesiac may struggle to remember certain facts or pieces of information. In more severe degrees, an individual who suffers from amnesia may lose ownership of virtually all of their memories. Extreme amnesia generally surpasses selective memory; while the latter only pertains to certain memories, the former (at its worst) causes the person to lose touch with all of their memories.
Another form of amnesia (and selective memory) manifests in the form of forgetting various periods within an event. Clinically known as lacunar amnesia, someone who suffers from this ailment may subsequently lose memory of seconds, hours, or even days of a particular event. Sometimes lacunar amnesia is referred to as a blackout; however, it is usually engendered by drugs, alcohol, trauma, or other unpleasantries.
Evocation amnesia could almost be regarded as a distant cousin of lacunar amnesia. Instead of forgetting various periods within an event, this particular offshoot of selective memory prompts the afflicted individual to lose recollection of the specific names of individuals or inanimate objects. For instance, an evocative amnesiac might meet various people at events, yet subsequently, fail to remember their names. Oddly enough, the plighted individual may remember everything else about the people they encountered other than their names.
Finally comes hypermnesia. This particular variation of selective memory may be somewhat confusing to most people. In a sense, hypermnesia is the reverse of amnesia. Rather than the decreasing lack of memory (amnesia), hypermnesia occurs when an individual eerily seems to remember information all at once. This phenomenon is much rarer than amnesia and is most reported amongst individuals who have undergone near-death experiences or had epilepsy at one point or another.
Personality Traits And Selective Memory
The various forms and clinical analyses regarding selective memory inherently beg to question: are certain personality types more susceptible to selective memory than others? For quite some time, various minds wondered about the possibilities; thankfully, Psych Central has some answers.
Individual personality traits have direct impacts on how someone recalls a prior situation or encounter. In layman's terms, selective memory is a matter of perception. For instance, people who tend to be more anxious or on edge are likelier to remember a situation in a manner which suits their desires and wishes.
In its most insidious and malicious form, selective memory is sometimes regarded as a common trait amongst narcissists and other malignantly self-centered individuals. However, when regarding narcissists, selective memory tends to be more calculated and intentional, rather than clinical.
Narcissists with an agenda may, therefore, seek to manipulate certain people or circumstances by telling revised versions of an occurrence. They may purposefully leave out certain information or details to cast themselves in a favorable light or paint a picture which simply isn't accurate.
However, even amongst narcissists, there are some questions and debates regarding selective memory. While some individuals maintain that narcissists gleefully lie and misrepresent situations for the sake of improving their self-image, other people have stated that narcissists truly do believe what they're saying. In other words, the latter group believes that narcissists have succumbed to such an intense state of delusion that they have fallen for their con and believe their claims, regardless of how misleading or duplicitous they may be.
A Final Word
To some extent, every person has their degree of "selective memory." After all, memories are not clear-cut; they are not black and white. Two people could witness the same event and still leave with at least somewhat conflicting viewpoints. Each's thoughts, and personal interpretations are, to some degree, influenced by who they are, how they perceive the world, and their prior experiences.
Selective memory only becomes problematic when it seriously impacts one's ability to interact with others and recall events. Someone who suffers from genuine and clinical selective memory should seek out the services of a licensed professional and determine what their options are.
BetterHelp also exists as an alternative for those who may be going through tough times or otherwise feeling unsure of themselves. Every person has their battles and crosses to bear. Virtually everyone needs help at one point or another. This is nothing to be ashamed of. A critical component of growing and evolving as an individual pertains to the ability to ask for guidance or assistance when necessary.
The choice is in your hands. This is your life, after all, and nobody can tell you what to do or how you should live. However, BetterHelp will always be here as an option for anyone who may be struggling or simply through the innate ups and downs of life.
If you or a loved one ever feel the need to contact BetterHelp for any reason, you can do so by clicking here.