Hollywood often glamorizes the role of a forensic psychologist. With popular crime shows hitting prime-time television almost nightly, a lot of false information gets spread about this area of psychological expertise. So what is forensic psychology? Where does it come from and why does it matter in today's world? The answers might surprise you enough to pursue it yourself!
What Is Forensic Psychology?
To understand what forensic psychology is, it is helpful to break down its name. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the term "forensic" refers to "relating to or dealing with the application of scientific knowledge to legal problems." The term "psychology" is defined as "the science of mind and behavior."
Jane Tyler Ward, Ph.Dhas the most basic forensic psychology definition, describing it as the"psychological assessment of individuals who are involved, in one way or another, with the legal system."
Popular television shows typically portray a forensic psychologist as a complex, brooding genius. Someone whose mind is so advanced that they alone understand the thought processes and motivations of an unidentified serial killer. Someone, who, like the famous Sherlock Holmes, can pick up on the slightest of details to crack a difficult case.
While this image does a lot for story-telling, in reality, the career of a forensic psychologist is much broader and more administrative. Most forensic psychologists are not chasing criminals with secret-agent flair. They are sitting in treatment offices, conducting research, working at desks, or helping others in their community.
They spend much of their time treating patients, assessing a person's ability to stand trial, working with victims of crimes, and writing reports. They collaborate with members of the judicial system to reduce crime rates; help offenders re-enter society and advocate for children in the case of divorce or abuse. They also work with companies to identify or prevent fraud and come up with safety plans for schools. You will see them work with children and adults, criminals and the innocent, as well as individuals and groups.
On occasion, an expert forensic psychologist will consult on a high-profile crime. For example, during the trial for the murder of Arizona resident Travis Alexander, his accused killer, ex-girlfriend Jodi Arias, underwent an extensive evaluation to determine whether she was mentally fit to stand trial. Likewise, you can find forensic psychologists like J. Reid Meloystepin during times of serious tragedies, (like the Las Vegas shooting) to offer insight into the minds of those who commit heinous acts.
While forensic psychologists publish countless books, interviews, and documentaries (check out John Douglas and Mark Olshaker's "Obsession."), the knowledge they have stretches far beyond the most violent or even intriguing crimes of our century. A forensic psychologist is mostly active during every day legal situations. But, there are a few exceptions to this rule.
Are They "Profilers?"
Sometimes, the term "criminal psychologist" or "profiler" is used interchangeably with "forensic psychologist." While the two roles are closely related, criminal psychologistsare professionals who have dedicated their career to understanding the minds of criminals.
They work closely with offenders, study their behaviors, evaluate crime scenes, and give us insight into motives. The duties of a forensic psychologist and criminal psychologist do overlap in some ways, but someone who identifies strictly as a "criminal psychologist" is more likely to be employed with the police or FBI than with other agencies.
What Makes a Forensic Psychologist Different?
Forensic psychologists are first and foremost psychologists. They have the proper credentials to treat and work with patients. Clinical forensic psychology, the practice of treating patients directly, takes place in many facilities, but often the motivation for working with one is different than that of using a general practice psychologist.
When a forensic psychologist is needed, it is because the person they are working with requires legal assistance, representation, or needs to ensure they comply with certain legal parameters. There is a direct relationship with a court or a specific law or regulation. While they may help their patients work through mental illness or behavioral concerns like anger, anxiety, or depression, the primary reason for doing so stems from a specific legal need.
Where Does Forensic Psychology Come From?
Although it is a commonplace today, and it is a thriving career choice, the history of forensic psychology had a slow beginning. While crime has existed presumably all throughout human history, an appreciation for the relationship between the law and the mind did not come about until the 1900's.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Hugo Munsterberg was the director of Harvard's Psychological Laboratory. In 1908 he wrote, "On the Witness Stand," a book which explored topics like eyewitness testimony and crime prevention. While his ideas were controversial, even his opponents could not ignore the potential value ofintroducing psychology into the courtroom.But it took several practical cases to support that need.
One of those casestook that same year. Louis Brandeis, a lawyer from Boston, worked on the case of Mueller v. Oregon. He presented empirical research which showed that long working hours impacted the health of women. This was the first time in history that social science was used as part of a brief. This opened the door for legal acceptance of social and psychological research, but it would still be a long while until it became a common practice.
From the early 1900's to roughly the late 1960's a formal path for forensic psychology was still evolving. While some cases such as Jenkins v. the United States did promote the use of psychology in the courtroom, many experts were hesitant to replace medical doctors with those who had degrees in psychology instead.
In 1968, psychologists Jay Ziskin and Eric Dreikurs formed the first forensic psychology professional association. Their efforts led to the formation of the American-Psychology Law Society (APLS) which today, has over 3,000 members. Thus, the relationship between the mind and the law as we know it gained credibility and acceptance.
Today, forensic psychology spans all over the legal spectrum. Current research explores hot topics like false allegations, threat management, and the rights of terrorists. Some professionals expand their knowledge to other fields, like forensic neuropsychology, to offer a medical and psychological perspective to their clients. They work hard to protect victims in any situations including class action lawsuits and military court-marshal cases. And last but not least, the rising interest in the career field has paved the way for some individuals to become university professors.
How Can I Become A Forensic Psychologist?
Forensic psychology requires an advanced degree. Most professionals recommend that students who are interested in pursuing this career path, start with getting a Bachelor of Science degree (instead of a Bachelor of Arts), to ensure meeting the prerequisites for further education. Many students pursue their degree in Psychology with a minor or dual major in Criminology or Law, but it is best advised to tailor one's academic path to what best fits their future career goals.
Upon earning aBachelor's degree, alumni then pursue a Master's degree. Instead of learning the basics about psychology, law, health, and science they will go on to study theoretical and research-based practices. Their classes may include topics like "Personality Assessment," "Crisis counseling," or "Ethics and Practice of Psychology." Once getting a master's degree, it is often advised to pursue a degree in Law, unless classes have already been taken as part of the concentration, or otherwise, go on to earn a doctorate if interested in treating patients or conducting research.
While many academic qualifications get someone ready for a career in forensic psychology, it is important to make sure their personality and skills are a good fit too. The most basic skills needed for this role are strong communication, attention to detail, and critical thinking. Likewise, a good forensic psychologist must also be able to remain objective in difficult situations. Moral or ethical views cannot sway their opinion about a patient or legal process.
The role also calls for strong resilience. A forensic psychologist may deal with difficult topics like child abuse, domestic violence, substance abuse, and death, on a regular basis.
As you can see, there is much more to forensic psychology than meets the eye and these professionals are found anywhere legal processes are followed. While the FBI does have its fair share, and a select few do have roles similar to what you would see on TV, you are just as likely to find a forensic psychologist in a hospital, school, business, or outpatient treatment center. Becoming a forensic psychologist is a long and difficult process, but it is incredibly rewarding to help and protect others and make a difference in the lives of those who need it most.
Frequently Asked Questions
What does a forensic psychologist do?
A forensic psychologist uses their unique combination of skills and education to assess individuals who are involved with the legal system in one way or another. They might serve as an expert witness in a court case, conduct research studies, and evaluate people who are involved with the legal system such as police officers, crime victims, and people who have been arrested for a crime. A forensic psychologist is often called upon to assess an individual’s mental competency, to assess people for possible diagnoses of post traumatic stress disorder, or to design rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders.
What skills do you need to be a forensic psychologist?
In addition to the education you would receive in a forensic psychology program, a good forensic psychologist will also need superior verbal and written communication skills. These skills are crucial for performing psychological evaluations and crafting reports about your findings. You would also need strong clinical assessment and interviewing skills in addition to a sharp eye for detail.
Is Forensic Psychology dangerous?
Being a forensic psychologist in real life isn’t quite as dangerous as Criminal Minds and Law & Order: SVU make it out to be. But there is still an element of danger to the job. As a forensic psychologist, you might be required to interview individuals who are impulsive and violent. In some cases, you might be interviewing them one-on-one in a prison. If a scenario arises where you feel uncomfortable in your capacity as a forensic psychologist, it’s important to take steps to protect yourself.
What is the difference between a forensic psychologist and a criminal psychologist?
Criminal psychology and forensic psychology have a great deal in common but there are separated by a few key distinctions. A forensic psychologist works with almost every aspect of the legal system. They might work in criminal or civil law or both. They might interview victims, counsel juvenile offenders, testify in court, or design treatment programs for at-risk youth. The difference between a forensic psychologist and a criminal psychologist is that where a forensic psychologist might work with victims and juries, a criminal psychologist works almost exclusively with criminals. They might work as a criminal profiler with the FBI or the police and a typical workday might involve interviewing criminals and constructing psychological profiles.
Do criminal psychologists work with serial killers?
They certainly might. Obviously, working with serial killers is not a guaranteed facet of any criminal psychologist’s job, but interviewing serial killers would be within a criminal psychologist’s remit if a case involving serial killers were to arise.
Which is better: psychology or criminology?
The answer to this question depends upon the profession you would prefer to pursue. Both psychology and criminology are valid and important fields of study and they both have the potential to help a lot of people, so it is not possible to say that one profession is objectively better than another. It’s also important to be aware of the differences between these fields. Psychology is the study of the mind; criminology is the study of crime. Being a criminologist and being a criminal psychologist are not the same thing. But if you wanted to work as a psychologist in the legal system, you might prefer a career as a forensic psychologist. Similarly, if you prefer to work with criminals, you would be better off pursuing a career in criminology.
What is a forensic criminologist?
A forensic criminologist is someone who studies crime. Forensic criminologists focus primarily on the sociological aspects of crime rather than criminal psychology. A good way to remember the difference between psychology and sociology is that psychology is the study of “me,” while sociology is the study of “we.” Put simply, psychology examines the inner workings of the individual while sociology studies the complex relationships between groups of human beings and the psychological, biological, and environmental factors that shape them. Therefore, a forensic criminologist might study the social environment of a prison or towns that have high crime rates. They would then use their findings to inform law enforcement officials’ policies and understanding of criminal behavior.
Is it hard to be a forensic psychologist?
Is psychology the same as criminology?
No. Psychology is the study of the mind; criminology is the study of crime. A criminal psychologist’s job is very different from that of a criminal psychologist.
What can I do with a criminology degree?
Many people assume that a criminologist’s job is the same as being a crime scene investigator (or CSI). But criminology careers actually tend to be more academic than hands-on. With a degree in criminology, you might work as an academic advisor in a prison or rehabilitation facility for juvenile offenders. You might work in a university or a laboratory as a researcher. Many people with criminology degrees also work as probation officers, forensic science technicians, or jury consultants.
Is criminology a psychology or sociology degree?
Criminology is a blend of psychology and sociology. A criminologist uses elements of both sciences to understand crime and criminal behavior. However, if you were to search for a criminology degree program at a university, criminology would be listed under the sociology department because it primarily examines crime through a sociological lens.
Is “criminal profiler” a real job?
Yes. Criminal Profiler is a very real job, but it is highly competitive, and the supply of candidates far outweighs the demand for positions of this type.
Is “FBI profiler” a real job?
Yes. Although there are some exceptions, as a general rule, FBI profiler and criminal profiler are the same thing. Television shows like Criminal Minds and Law and Order: SVU have glamorized this position. As a result, many young people are very eager to pursue a career in criminal profiling.
How do you become a profiler for the FBI?
If you want to become a criminal profiler for the FBI, it’s important to know that shows like Criminal Minds make this job look easier and more accessible than it really is. In reality, becoming an FBI profiler is very difficult and very competitive; no one simply graduates from college and walks right into a job as a profiler. Instead, the typical path to this career is through law enforcement. Most hopeful profilers start out as a police officer and work their way through the ranks. To even be considered for the job, you must meet a number of legal and physical requirements. And even if you do meet these requirements, you will have a long and competitive road ahead if you hope to become a profiler.
What is the most an FBI agent can make?
An FBI agent’s salary depends on their rank and position. According to Glassdoor, an FBI agent at the highest end of the pay scale might expect to make $137,000. This is not necessarily the salary for an FBI profiler.