Most people have encountered bullies at some point during their lives, but we may not always be aware of the reasons why people tend to engage in bullying behavior. Often, insecurity, perceptions of being powerless, a need for control, and being rewarded for bullying can motivate people to treat others poorly. If you experience or witness bullying, it can be best to take a stand, lean on your support system, remain emotionally neutral, and manage the situation as soon as possible. You may also benefit from working with a licensed therapist to address the impacts of bullying.
Why Do People Engage In Bullying Behavior?
Bullying can be defined as the deliberate and repetitive use of words or actions against a person or group of people to cause social, physical, or psychological harm. While bullying has likely existed for a very long time, it was generally in the 1970s that this form of interpersonal aggression became the subject of research focused primarily on school bullying.
However, bullying is not necessarily something that only happens to school-aged children. People may encounter bullies at every stage of life, whether it happens within your family or in the workplace.
While some children who bully eventually recognize their poor behavior or are reprimanded accordingly, others may continue to bully as adults.
- A perception of powerlessness
- A need for control
- Being rewarded for bullying behavior
People who bully may be managing mental health conditions, such as depression or anger management concerns. They may be emotionally neglected at home. It may be possible that they are being abused* or living as the target of a bully in other aspects of their lives.
*If you or a loved one is witnessing or experiencing any form of abuse, please know that help is available. You can call the National Domestic Violence Hotline anytime at 1-800-799-SAFE (7233).
Insecurity And Powerlessness
For those who have experienced or witnessed bullying, it may seem impossible that the person doing the bullying could be experiencing feelings of insecurity or powerlessness. However, some people may attempt to combat insecurity by trying to overpower others. In some cases, if a bully feels unhappy with themselves, they may attempt to make others feel as poorly as they do.
When an individual feels this way, they may engage in bullying to bring others down to their perceived level. Many people who are subjected to bullying may want to avenge their pain and humiliation to restore their own self-esteem.
It can be more beneficial to learn ways to navigate an aggressive personality—not by meeting them with equal aggression, but instead, with a sense of compassion and clear, healthy boundaries.
Keep in mind that when an individual believes themselves to be powerless in their own life, it may lead them to bully others. Some children from dysfunctional homes may engage in bullying because they are shown this example at home. Someone who is insecure may be afraid of appearing weak in front of others. To hide their own weakness, they may try to find and expose weakness in someone else.
Please note that this explanation (and the others below) is not meant to excuse bullying, but to explain its potential motivations. Often, when we understand something, we are more equipped to change it.
Internalized Behaviors And The Need For Control
Research has shown that emotional deficits and mental health concerns in people who bully may be the root causes of bullying behavior. For example, anxiety and depression can be strongly related to bullying behaviors. Other factors that can cause a person to bully may include emotional reactivity and anger management challenges.
Some people may engage in bullying to gain control of their surroundings. For example, they may have no control over the way they are treated at home and seek to control their lives in other ways. The common theme may be that there are concerns we often cannot see playing a role in bullying behavior, such as cultural differences, race disparities, disabilities, and more.
Bullying Is Rewarded
Sadly, bullying behavior can often be rewarded. The bully may seem to get what they want from the interaction. Meanwhile, those who witness the behavior and choose to do nothing can reinforce or even encourage the bullying.
Bullies may be particularly rewarded in the workplace. They often achieve higher levels of career success and receive positive evaluations from supervisors.
Any time a person who bullies wins and succeeds in getting what they want, it may reinforce their behavior. When they can control and intimidate others, they usually achieve what they have set out to do. Bullies’ behavior can also be rewarded if others encourage them or join in. This can give them the attention they likely desire.
How To Stop Bullying
Here are some ways you can put an end to bullying:
Take A Stand
This advice may work regardless of your age. People who bully tend to prey on people they perceive to be weaker than they are. When you show them that you are confident and that their tactics are not working, you may steal their power and cause them to lose control of the situation. Because the person who bullies may already be self-conscious, they are likely to become angry as you become more empowered. Eventually, they may be forced to give up once you show them that you are not going to allow their behavior to impact you.
Have A Support Group
Bullies often act alone, and they do not usually want to take on an entire group. If you have a solid group of friends you can lean on for support, it might cause the person who is bullying you to think twice. This can be effective on the playground with young children, and it often works well with adults in an office setting, too.
Stay Emotionally Neutral
Try not to show emotion when you are being bullied. If you become angry or confrontational, you may only encourage the bully’s behavior. Many bullies want to see a strong reaction from their targets. If you remain neutral and do your best to ignore the behavior, they may be more likely to give up.
Manage The Situation Quickly
The longer a person gets away with bullying you, the harder it can be to get them to stop. If you take immediate action when you first experience bullying, it may send the bully a message that you are not going to stand for their behavior. Depending on where the bullying situation is taking place, you may wish to immediately report the person’s behavior to relevant authorities.
Don’t Keep The Situation A Secret
If you are being bullied in school, you may need to find a trusted adult with whom to talk. This could be a teacher, a parent, or a mentor. If you are in the workplace, then you should generally address the issue with your Human Resources (HR) department. If you do not tell anyone you are being bullied, the effects of bullying can worsen.
How To Overcome The Effects Of Bullying
Bullying can affect several aspects of a person’s life, potentially impacting their physical and mental health, social functioning, and work or school performance.
People who are bullied often experience negative health and social consequences, often including the following:
- Poor academic and/ or work performance
- Relationship problems
- Negative self-perceptions, including low self-worth and self-esteem
- Mental health disorders or concerns, such as emotional dysregulation, depression, and anxiety
Bullying can lead to feelings of loneliness and social anxiety. Depression and teen suicide* can also be significantly higher among those who experience bullying. Finding the right therapist may be the best way to learn how to navigate the effects of bullying and the distress that may follow.
*If you are experiencing suicidal thoughts, the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is available 24/7 at 988. You can also text “START” to 741741 for the Crisis Text Line, which will connect you to a trained volunteer within five minutes.
While the psychological and physical effects of bullying can impact people throughout their lives, one approach to stopping the cycle of this interpersonal aggression can be to treat the mental health of the bully as well. Children exposed to violence in the home tend to participate in higher levels of physical bullying than those who are not exposed to violence.
A therapist can address the reasons behind this behavior, helping those who bully to change their destructive habits and take responsibility for their actions. There can be many reasons for bullying, which often have roots in mental health challenges, traumatic experiences, or family dysfunction. Early intervention and therapy can make a big difference in bullying behavior, especially for teens. Along the way, a bully can learn to relate to others in healthier ways and heal the wounds within that may be contributing to their behavior.
When A Professional Can Help
Bullying can seriously impact your mental health, including your self-esteem, confidence, and ability to manage anxiety. If you are the target of a bully, do not hesitate to reach out for help. Similarly, if you’ve realized you have a tendency to bully others, seeking help can be beneficial.
A highly effective form of therapy for helping people living with anxiety and depression symptoms can be cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a type of talk therapy where the client can learn to change negative thought processes, thus adjusting their emotions and behaviors as well. Whether you engage in bullying behavior or have been bullied yourself, you may be living with symptoms of these disorders, and CBT may be helpful.
Benefits Of Online Therapy
Many people seeking therapy face barriers to in-person treatment, such as limited opportunities for licensed therapists, delayed treatment due to waiting lists, and more. In these cases, online therapy can be a beneficial and research-backed form of treatment that can remove these potential barriers. In addition, speaking out about bullying can be challenging, and the option to talk to a therapist via phone call, video call, or online chat can help individuals feel more comfortable.
Effectiveness Of Online Therapy
Research generally supports the effectiveness of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), as shown in a systematic review study published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research. The researchers reported that “this study provides evidence supporting the acceptability and effectiveness of guided iCBT for the treatment of depression and anxiety in routine care.” If you’ve been experiencing symptoms of depression or anxiety due to bullying, online therapy may be an effective treatment option.
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Why do people always pick on me?If you’re wondering, “Why do people bully me?” it’s important to know that it’s not your fault if others seem to frequently pick on you. Someone who is bullying you may be getting bullied themselves, and it may help that person feel better to direct their negative feelings towards you.
What makes someone an easy target?
When it comes to bullying, whether it’s cyberbullying, workplace bullying, or kids bullying others at schools, an easy target may be someone who appears nonassertive. Individuals who appear passive, non-threatening, and timid may seem easier to pick on for those looking to hurt others. When you define bullying, there is always an element of someone picking on another person who appears to be more vulnerable in some way. Additionally, bullies may go for people who appear to be lower in social status, such as individuals who have fewer friends.
Do bullies have mental health issues?
Research shows that people who bully others tend to have poorer mental health than those who do not bully others. Bullies – and those who are bullied – can experience issues like low self-esteem, depression, and mental health disorders. Different circumstances may contribute to these mental health issues, such as past traumas, difficulties at home, or other issues.
Is bullying a risk factor for depression?
Being bullied can be a risk factor for depression. Experiencing physical violence, name-calling, intimidation, and other types of bullying can have a negative impact on mental health, increasing the risk for depression and other mental health conditions.
For young people experiencing bullying, it’s important to inform school staff or parents of what’s happening so that it can be stopped. And while it may not be possible to prevent bullying altogether, stopping it when you can can be a good step towards helping victims of bullying.
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