A Brief Look At The Science Of Respondent Behavior

Medically reviewed by Paige Henry, LMSW, J.D.
Updated May 4, 2024by BetterHelp Editorial Team
Content warning: Please be advised, the below article might mention trauma-related topics that could be triggering to the reader. Please see our Get Help Now page for more immediate resources.

All organisms on earth respond to stimuli, and human beings are no exception. Respondent conditioning, also known as classical conditioning, describes the process by which we learn from our experiences. However, in the case of traumatic or negative experiences, our mental, emotional, and behavioral responses can negatively impact functioning. Here, you’ll find a brief exploration of what respondent behavior is and how it works.

Getty/Luis Alvarez
Respondent behavior can point to mental health concerns

What is respondent behavior?

Respondent behavior can be thought of as the same type of behavior that may be brought about by classical conditioning. That is, just like the dogs in Ivan Pavlov's experiments learned to salivate when they heard a bell, those engaging in respondent behavior have typically been trained to do so because of a connection to some sort of stimuli. This generally begins with an involuntary or unconditioned response.

The unconditioned response

When Pavlov's dogs were given meat powder, their reflexive response was usually to salivate. No one had to teach them to do so; instead, the response was natural and involuntary. Scientists often call this an “unconditioned response.”

The neutral stimulus

The bell in the experiment was originally a neutral stimulus, as dogs don't typically have a natural response to a bell. It was only after conditioning that the bell in this famous experiment began to cause a response, becoming what's known as a conditioned stimulus.

The unconditioned response and the neutral stimulus

Pavlov's dogs are believed to have learned to salivate to the sound of a bell ringing because that was how he trained them to respond. He did this by presenting both the ringing bell and the meat powder together. Each time these two stimuli were paired together this way, the dogs became more accustomed to the connection. In other words, by training dogs to create an association between a sound and a reward, Pavlov connected the existence of one with the promise of the other.

The learned behavior

In this situation, salivation could be viewed as the respondent behavior. The dogs usually salivated each time they heard the bell ring. This is not a natural, reflexive behavior for a dog. It is one that may only be learned through classical conditioning.


Do humans learn in the same way?

It's easy to imagine a dog being trained with a ringing bell and some meat powder. What may be more difficult to imagine is how you might learn to associate a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned human response. When the response being trained is an automatic response that happens without you even being aware of it, humans can also be affected by classical conditioning. Types of automatic responses can include salvation, nausea, changes in heart rate, reflexive motor responses, and pupil dilation.

Mental health professionals sometimes use the principles of classical conditioning to help them guide their clients towards behavior change. They may have an understanding of how to use antecedents or prior stimuli to mold or control respondent behaviors.

These professionals are normally trained to recognize the importance of antecedents or prior stimuli, in molding and controlling respondent behaviors. Instead of relying solely on operant conditioning, which can come after the behavior and simply reward good behavior and punish bad, antecedents are typically uncovered through conversations between a therapist and client. The therapist may then develop intervention strategies to change or modify the client's environment to also change their behavior.

When does respondent behavior become a problem?

Respondent behavior can point to mental health concerns

Often, when something traumatic or upsetting happens over and over, people pick up information from the environment where the event takes place. For example, someone who experiences an attack on their way home from work may feel their heart rate soar whenever they enter the parking garage. Since they must go there every day for work, they might begin to skip work because they feel very physically uncomfortable there. They could even lose their job because of the respondent behavior they've incidentally learned.

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Respondent behavior can come in many forms and may reflect the way we react to different stimuli. Therapists can use a variety of strategies to understand the underlying causes behind a person's respondent behavior. These causes can include mental illnesses like panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and phobias

The following strategies may be widely used to compensate for respondent behavior and help individuals begin to take control of their responses to different stimuli once again:

  • Chaining: Breaking a complicated task into smaller, more manageable tasks
  • Prompting: Providing a prompt to trigger a positive response
  • Shaping: Gradually changing behavior to arrive at the desired behavior
  • Flooding: Intense and rapid exposure to stimuli that evoke fear; often used to treat phobias, anxiety, and stress disorders
  • Desensitizing: Learning relaxation techniques and putting them into action while facing a fear in a controlled environment; individuals may then discuss the feelings they experienced before, during, and after exposure to the trigger in question
Respondent behavior may be the result of a psychological phenomenon that’s beyond our control, but it can be addressed and understood. Working with a mental health professional may help you get to the bottom of what’s behind any behavioral changes you’ve noticed. 

Benefits of online therapy

Online therapy can be an excellent option, thanks to its convenience. Because you can connect with a provider who understands your needs from a setting of your choice, online therapy can be a convenient way to receive support.

No matter where your respondent behavior stems from, online therapy may be able to offer solutions that can help. Research shows that online therapy can be an effective treatment method for a variety of mental health disorders that may be related to respondent behavior, such as PTSD and panic disorder. Even if you’ve not been diagnosed with a mental illness, a therapist who has experience helping others understand trauma may be able to do the same for you.


Respondent behavior generally refers to a phenomenon in which a particular stimulus leads the brain to produce a certain response, even if that response is one that’s seemingly unrelated. This sort of conditioning can become relevant to mental health in cases of trauma or learned responses to perceived triggers. No matter why you may experience respondent behavioral patterns, talking to a licensed therapist can help you overcome these associations and begin to live freely again.
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