Kleptomania is a rare mental health disorder that’s characterized by the impulse to shoplift or steal items, typically when they’re not needed or when one could afford to buy them instead. It’s an impulse control disorder, according to the DSM-5. Symptoms can be managed with the help of a mental health professional, which is important as this disorder can have significant negative impacts on the individual and those around them if left untreated. Read on to learn more about kleptomania and its symptoms, causes, and treatment options.
What Is Kleptomania?
It’s different from those without this mental health disorder who may steal because of need, boredom, or for a thrill. Once a person with kleptomania steals, they often feel a release of pleasure, relief, or other positive emotions. However, once these feelings dissipate, emotions like embarrassment, shame, remorse, and guilt may replace them. Although kleptomania is extremely rare, it's a serious disorder. It can cause a great deal of harm to the individual who has it, as well as to their friends, family, and even society at large. As a result, if the impulse isn't curbed, controlled, or otherwise managed, serious consequences could result.
Potential Consequences For Someone With Kleptomania
Acting on kleptomaniac impulses can result in various consequences, including legal repercussions. If caught, an individual could be banned from a store or other establishment and experience a sense of potentially public embarrassment. In more extreme cases, they could receive a fine or even jail time.
The behavior associated with this disorder can also negatively impact a person’s relationships. Family and friends may choose not to associate with the individual because of their behavior, and/or the individual could choose to self-isolate due to shame around their condition. All of these potential consequences could also take a toll on the person’s mental health.
Signs And Symptoms Of Kleptomania
The manifestation of kleptomania often takes the form of a cycle of feelings and urges, as follows:
The powerful urge to steal an item that’s not needed
A strong sense of anxiety and tension leading up to the theft
Relief or pleasure during or immediately after the theft
Guilt, shame, embarrassment, remorse, or fear of consequences after that
Eventually, the powerful urge to steal again
Again, an individual with kleptomania typically doesn’t steal because they can’t afford to buy the items; instead, the behavior happens because of a strong, nearly irresistible impulse. This urge to steal can occur at any time and may cause them to take things from public places or even from friends and family—which can lead to further rejection and isolation.
Note that the impulse to steal is usually spontaneous in someone with kleptomania, meaning that the individual typically doesn’t plan ahead for it or have help in carrying it out. Afterward, it’s not uncommon to simply stash the items away rather than using them. An individual may also choose to give the items away, donate them, or secretly attempt to return them to where they were stolen from in an attempt to lessen the guilt they may feel.
Causes Of Kleptomania
Kleptomania is a rare disorder and its causes are not fully understood. It’s suspected that it may be related to a chemical imbalance in the brain and/or genetic factors. The majority of those diagnosed with kleptomania are women, and the behavior often first manifests in the teenage years. It’s not uncommon for this condition to be comorbid with other mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders, symptoms of which are also common triggers for engaging in stealing behavior in those with kleptomania.
Treatment For Kleptomania
Research suggests that subtypes of this rare disorder may exist, with some presenting more like a mood disorder while others present more similarly to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). That’s why meeting with a mental health professional is typically an initial recommended course of action, so they can evaluate the individual and suggest an appropriate course of treatment for their unique situation. Psychotherapy and/or medication are commonly suggested methods of treatment for people with kleptomania.
Connecting With A Mental Health Professional
Mental health disorders involving compulsions can significantly impact one’s daily functioning and overall mental health. Kleptomania in particular can have severe consequences—including legal ones—which means that seeking the appropriate treatment can be important. Meeting with a mental health professional in person or online can be a helpful first step.
Those who are interested in traditional in-person therapy can search for a provider in their local area. Those who are interested in trying virtual therapy might consider an online therapy platform like BetterHelp. Through this service, you can get matched with a licensed therapist in a matter of days who you can meet with via phone, video call, and/or in-app messaging to address the challenges you may be facing. Research suggests that online and in-person therapy can offer similar benefits in many cases, so those who find attending therapy from the comfort of home or who are interested in its relative cost-effectiveness may choose to explore a virtual option.
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