Sociopath Traits You Must Recognize For Your Own Safety

By Sarah Cocchimiglio|Updated August 4, 2022

Do You Have Questions About High Functioning Sociopaths, Sociopath Behavior, Common Signs Of Sociopaths, Or How To Recognize Sociopaths? Read Here

A mental disorder that is characterized by a person showing no regard for right or wrong and who shows no empathy for the feelings of others is referred to as antisocial personality disorder.  Often referred to as sociopathy or sociopathic personality disorder, an antisocial personality disorder is defined by a pattern of a low moral sense of conscience, disrupted personal and professional relationships, impulsive or aggressive behavior, and a lack of respect for authority and rules which sometimes leads to criminal history.

Sociopathy is estimated to affect between three to five percent of the population. There are different types of sociopathy and each is defined by the symptoms the sociopath exhibits. If you think you know someone who may have sociopathy, speaking with an online therapist can help you navigate the relationship. 

Sociopath Types

There are different types of sociopaths, and they are usually classified according to the behavior or symptoms that they exhibit.

The Common or General Sociopath

Common sociopaths are considered to make up the majority of those who have sociopathic or antisocial personality disorders. They appear to have no sense of moral compass and are generally very manipulative, especially if they believe their behavior can cause them personal gain.

The Disempathetic Sociopath

Disempathetic sociopaths may feel emotional connections with a select group of people such as close friends or family members.  People who are not part of a disempathetic sociopath’s inner circle are typically regarded as objects to achieve some self-serving purpose. While they understand what empathy is, they are not likely to show empathy or concern for anyone outside their inner circle.  Even those with whom a disempathetic sociopath appears to have close personal relationships may have limited response or feelings of true concern directed to them.

The Disaffiliated Sociopath

A person who is a disaffiliated sociopath exhibits an extreme inability to connect with others which generally affects every aspect of their life. Some mental health professionals believe that a lack of nurturing from a caregiver as an infant and young child contributes to the seriousness of this type of sociopathy. 

The Hostile Sociopath

While not all sociopaths exhibit aggression or violence, the hostile sociopath seems to be angry most of the time.  Their feelings of rejection from others often contribute to the level of anger, aggression, or violence they exhibit. 

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A sociopath is a term used to describe someone with an antisocial personality disorder. They think and act without regard for others, and their behavior may include lying, cheating, and manipulating for personal gain. Typically, their narcissism and lack of remorse allow them to achieve their desires by acting on other people’s feelings. On the surface, sociopaths may appear like anyone else. Some sociopaths do not function well in society and spend their time in and out of the justice system.

The term “high-functioning” sociopath is used to describe sociopaths who are especially skilled at giving the illusion of being what they believe others want to see in them. They are especially skilled at recognizing what other people like and do not like and often use that skill to help manipulate potential targets.

What Is The Difference Between a Psychopath and a Sociopath?

The terms psychopath and sociopath are often used interchangeably when referring to someone with an antisocial personality disorder.  According to the American Psychiatric Association, although a psychopath and a sociopath may share some of the same characteristic traits, some behavioral differences distinguish them from one another. The most notable differences between psychopaths and sociopaths are the way they react in social situations and their behavior toward other people.

Sociopathic people tend to break rules, disregard other person’s feelings, and act solely for their own gain.

Psychopathy versus Sociopathy: Differences

While psychopaths tend to be very organized, almost to the point that they are obsessed with organization, sociopaths are generally disorganized. Psychopaths seem to have no conscience and are often referred to as cold-hearted. While sociopaths do seem to have some sense of moral conscience, they do not allow their knowledge of right and wrong to dictate their behavior. Both are manipulative and engage others for personal gain.

How to Spot Traits of a High-functioning Sociopath Characteristics

Learning to identify the traits of a sociopath can help you recognize if you are being affected by their behavior and know when to seek help. 

High-functioning sociopaths often test well on IQ tests and have superior intelligence. They are very charming, and their magnetic personality seems to naturally draw others to them.  High-functioning sociopaths are typically very calculated and may show extreme patience when trying to lay the foundation necessary to work a situation for their good.

High-functioning sociopaths usually hold jobs, are married, and have children. They can be extremely successful in life. Until their sociopathic tendencies are triggered by some type of stress such as a change in life or relationship role, the loss of a job, or perceived attacks against them personally, there may be few if any signs that a person is a sociopath at all.

Traits of a High-Functioning Sociopath

By understanding the characteristics of a high-functioning sociopath, you can see how this individual may be manipulating and exploiting you. They are usually very charming and clever, and, at first, their actions may seem genuine. Over time, lies, deceptions, and lack of empathy are exposed to reveal their sociopathic nature. Their common traits may include the following:

  • High IQ: High-functioning sociopaths often have a higher IQ than other sociopaths or people without personality disorders. This helps them plan, manipulate, and exploit others.
  • Lack of empathy: They find it difficult to empathize with others or understand the emotional consequences of their actions.
  • Narcissism: They often have strong self-love and grandiose self-image. This occurs because of low esteem and delusional beliefs.
  • Charming: Although most sociopaths lack empathy, they are capable of mimicking and manipulating emotions to appear charming and normal.
  • Secretive: A sociopath doesn't feel the need to share intimate details with others - unless they are using them to manipulate others.
  • Sexually deviant: Since they lack guilt, remorse, and emotional attachments, high-functioning sociopaths tend to have affairs and engage in questionable sexual activity.
  • Sensitive to criticism: Despite their lack of empathy, sociopaths desire the approval of others. Sociopathic people feel entitled to admiration and are quick to anger when criticized.
  • Impulsive behavior: Sociopaths are often reckless. They typically live in the moment and will do what they feel is needed to reach their immediate goals.
  • Sociopaths often lie: Compulsive lying is a common trait among all types of sociopaths. They will often disregard the truth to make themselves look better or get what they want.
  • Needing constant stimulation: Sociopaths often get bored easily and need to be actively engaged.
  • Addictive Behavior: Their compulsive mindset may result in addiction to drugs, alcohol, sex, gambling, or other addictive behaviors.
  • Rule Breakers/ Criminal Behavior: In general, sociopaths are known to be rule breakers. It is not uncommon for them to have a history of criminal activity because of their belief that they are above the law and breaking rules is of no consequence. Criminal activity associated with sociopaths could include theft, assault, or destruction of property. High-functioning sociopaths may also participate in more serious crimes or could be serial killers.

Possible Causes Of Becoming A Sociopath

Personality is a combination of thoughts, emotions, experiences, and behaviors that make a person a unique individual. Personality forms during early childhood and is influenced by interactions with caregivers. Personality traits can be influenced by religion, culture, and society as a whole. Though the exact cause of sociopathy is not known, certain circumstances, including environmental factors, make one more prone to the disorder.

These risk factors include:

  • A family history of antisocial personality disorder or other mental illnesses
  • Diagnosis of a childhood conduct disorder
  • Exposure to trauma, abuse, or neglect during childhood
  • Unstable or violent family life during formative years

Clinical Diagnosis Of A Sociopath

Although the disorder may not be diagnosed until a person is 18 years old or older, sociopathic traits usually manifest by the time someone reaches their early teens. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (DSM-5) includes sociopathic traits under the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. Any medical advice diagnosis is constructed on the premise that an individual must exhibit at least three of these antisocial behaviors:

  • Disregarding social norms and lawful behaviors - repeatedly performing actions that are grounds for arrest
  • Repeated lying, conning, or deception for personal profit or gain
  • Impulsiveness or failure to plan
  • Irritable or aggressive behavior is often marked by physical fights or assaults
  • Reckless disregard for the safety of self or others
  • Consistent irresponsibility - failing to maintain regular work or financial obligations
  • Lacking remorse or rationalizing actions that hurt, mistreat, or take from others

To meet the criteria to be clinically diagnosed as a sociopath, the individual must be at least 18 years old, with evidence of conduct disorder before 15 years of age. Their antisocial behavior cannot exclusively occur during schizophrenic or manic episodes or as a result of substance abuse.

Sociopath Test

There are internet sociopathy tests that may help determine if you or someone you know has sociopathic tendencies. Unfortunately, a high-functioning sociopath may not answer truthfully or accurately for fear of being exposed or criticized.

It is important to note that internet quizzes are not intended for diagnosing disorders, and they cannot give professional medical advice. They can, however, guide as to whether or not someone should seek professional help.

Trained professionals may use the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) as a diagnostic tool to rate a person's sociopathic, psychopathic, or antisocial tendencies. The Hare PCL-R contains two parts: a semi-structured interview and a review of the subject's file and history. Since sociopaths lie compulsively and without remorse, the information they provide must be confirmed by the subject's case history to arrive at an official diagnosis. This makes the Hare PCL-R much more reliable than self-directed assessments.

Hare's Psychopathy Checklist measures 20 traits associated with antisocial tendencies. Scoring ranges from 0 to 40. Those exhibiting no sociopathic traits would receive a 0. A score of 30 or above qualifies the subject for a psychopathy-related diagnosis. Most people without antisocial personality disorders score around a five.

A professional medical advice diagnosis may discover other mental health conditions, as well.

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Treating A Sociopath

Treating anyone with an antisocial personality disorder like sociopathy is often a difficult and lengthy process. The prognosis for treatment varies depending on a person's particular situation, their willingness to participate in treatment, and the severity of their symptoms. Many sociopaths have no desire to be treated or cured; however, according to peer-reviewed studies, treatments include:

  • Psychotherapy - Using psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can help with some sociopathic symptoms. Therapy could include anger management, challenging delusional thinking, or treatment for addictions and marital problems. Also, therapists can help the willing sociopath find root problems for their issues and give them a chance to change their negative thought patterns and harmful behaviors. The success of psychotherapy relies heavily on the therapeutic relationship between the patient and client. If a sociopath cannot admit to having a problem, it is often difficult to establish the therapeutic rapport necessary for effective psychotherapy.
  • Medications - Currently, there are no medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat antisocial personality disorder. Medications can help relieve the symptoms of co-occurring conditions such as anxiety, depression, impulsivity, or aggression. Since sociopaths could also have addictive tendencies, the drugs they are prescribed need to be monitored for misuse or abuse.
  • Stress-Reducing Activities - Yoga, exercise, guided meditative strategies, and other alternative therapies may help a sociopath with anxiety and stress. Though these therapies will not "cure" the disorder, they can be used as a supplement for medication and counseling.
  • Focus on Relationships - Sociopaths can benefit from working on sustaining healthier relationships with friends, family, and spouses. Marriage and family counseling may help if the high-functioning sociopath is willing. Also, faith communities and 12-step programs like Alcoholics Anonymous may provide necessary social support and accountability for their actions.

Protecting Yourself from a High-Functioning Sociopath

By realizing the behaviors and warning signs of a sociopath, you are better able to protect yourself from their selfish, sometimes dangerous, behaviors. Here are some tips for dealing with high-functioning sociopaths:

  • Remove them from your life. This may sound harsh and drastic, but it is the best way to protect yourself. Sociopaths' minds operate differently. They will not feel the same emotions you would if someone immediately decided to leave your life.
  • Know you can't fix a sociopath. There is no "cure" for a sociopath. As mentioned above, it is a long, difficult process to help sociopath lessen their symptoms. Chances are you may not have the knowledge or resources to give this person proper help, and most sociopaths have no desire to be helped. Without that desire, any form of treatment is useless. Believing you can "fix" a sociopath will only lead to failure and frustration.
  • Don't make agreements or deals with a sociopath. The sociopath is looking out for his or her best interests and has no desire to accommodate your needs. If they come at you with "you owe me," remember this line has been used by sociopaths for years. Maintain your distance and be wary of any tearful pleas to get you to do or conceal something. This is just another manipulation technique.

  • Trust your instincts. If that gut feeling nags at you when you first meet someone, trust it. Sociopaths are experts at alluring others, so, at first, it may be difficult to see through the charming facade. If your instincts tell you something is not right, do not let a sociopath's ego-feeding flattery quiet that little voice.
  • Get support. If you have been in a relationship with a sociopath - whether romantic, professional, family, or otherwise - chances are that you have been hurt and abused in some way. A mental health professional can teach you to set boundaries and protect yourself from the deceit, aggression, and anger of a high-functioning sociopath. There may also be local support groups for families and friends affected by antisocial personality disorder.

When You Need Help From Sociopaths (Or Psychopath) Traits

Trying to treat symptoms of sociopathic behavior can be difficult. A person with an antisocial personality disorder may not be willing to seek treatment, if you are in a relationship with someone or have a family member with sociopathic traits or behaviors, it’s important to reach out for help. Sociopaths and psychopaths have a serious mental health condition. You cannot force someone else to get help, but you take care of yourself.

If you are concerned about someone with sociopathic personality disorder and their mental health conditions, they exhibit problematic behaviors, or if you are experiencing symptoms that make you uncomfortable, reach out to your primary care provider or mental health professional. Take the time to talk about your concerns. Talking to a counselor or therapist can help you make sense of traits you are experiencing or witnessing.  Also, a mental health professional can help you establish a plan to protect your safety and well-being.

If you are thinking about suicide or if you are thinking about harming yourself, or others or if you have any medical emergency, you must immediately call the emergency service number (911 in the US and 999 in the UK) and notify the relevant authorities. Seek immediate in person assistance.

Whether you choose to talk to a local counselor, visit a community mental health center, or engage in online counseling, you can learn effective ways to cope.  Online counseling options, such as the services provided by BetterHelp, focus on providing affordable mental health care you can access from the comfort of your own home. The team of licensed, professional therapists will work with you to identify risks for your safety and well-being and help develop a plan of care that is specific to your needs.

Below are some commonly asked questions on this topic:

What makes a person a sociopath?
What makes a sociopath angry?
What is a sociopaths vs psychopaths?
What is the difference between a narcissist and a sociopath?
What is a sociopaths weakness?
Can sociopaths fall in love?
What does a sociopath want in a relationship?
Do sociopaths apologize?
How do you outsmart a sociopath?
What are the 7 symptoms of a psychopath?

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