Traits Of A High Functioning Sociopath
By Nadia Khan
Updated December 18, 2018
Reviewer Lindi Herrin, LPC
It is estimated that sociopaths make up between three to five percent of the population. Chances are you may have encountered one in your life. At first, a high functioning sociopath could appear charming, but their intentions are selfish, manipulative, and even dangerous. Relationships with sociopaths tend to be difficult, turbulent experiences. The sociopath manipulates situations and their partner which, often unknowingly, enables the antisocial behavior.
By understanding the warning signs, symptoms, and causes of sociopathology, you have a better chance at identifying and protecting yourself from someone with this antisocial personality disorder.
What Is A High Functioning Sociopath?
A sociopath is a term used to describe someone with an anti-social personality disorder. They think and act without regard for others includinglying, cheating, and manipulating for personal gain. Their narcissism and lack of remorse allow them to believe and most of the time succeed at achieving their desires. On the surface, sociopaths may appear like anyone else. High functioning sociopaths usually hold jobs, are married, and have children. In fact, they can be successful in life. Their sociopathic traits often surface under stress or during life transitions like marriage, layoffs, or whenever social pressures challenge their view of self. On the other hand, some sociopaths do not function as well. They spend their time in and out of the justice system often operating on the fringes of society when not incarcerated.
High Functioning Sociopath Traits
By understanding the characteristics of a high functioning sociopath, you can see how this individual may be manipulating and exploiting you. They are usually very charming and clever and, at first, their actions may seem genuine. Over time, their lies, deceptions, and lack of empathy are exposed to reveal their sociopathic nature. These characteristics traits include:
- High IQ: High functioning sociopaths often have a higher IQ than other sociopaths or people without personality disorders. This helps them plan, manipulate, and exploit others.
- Lack of empathy: Difficulty in empathizing with others or understanding the emotional consequences of their actions.
- Narcissism: They often have strong self-love and grandiose self-image. This occurs because of low esteem and delusional beliefs.
- Charming: Although most sociopaths lack empathy, they are capable of mimicking and manipulating emotions to appear charming and normal.
- Secretive: A sociopath doesn't feel the need to share intimate details with others unless it is to manipulate.
- Sexually deviant: Since they lack guilt, remorse, and emotional attachments, sociopaths tend to have affairs and engage in the questionable sexual activity.
- Sensitive to criticism: Despite their lack of empathy, sociopaths desire the approval of others. They feel entitled to admiration and are quick to anger when criticized.
- Impulsive behavior: Sociopaths often live in the moment and will do what they feel is needed to reach their immediate goals.
- Compulsive lying: Disregarding the truth to make themselves look better or get what they want.
- Needing constant stimulation: Sociopaths often get bored easily and need to be actively engaged.
- Addictive Behavior: Their compulsive mindset may result in addiction to drugs, alcohol, sex, gambling, or other addictive behaviors.
- Criminal Behavior: Criminal activity associated with sociopaths could include theft, assault, or destruction of property.
Causes Of A Functioning Sociopath
Our personalities are a combination of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors making us unique individuals. Personality forms during childhood by the interactions and inherited tendencies of our family, culture, and society. Though the exact cause of sociopathy is not known, certain circumstances make one more prone to the disorder.
Risk factors include:
- A family history of antisocial personality disorder or other mental illnesses.
- Diagnosis of a childhood conduct disorder.
- Exposure to trauma, abuse, or neglect during childhood.
- Unstable or violent family life during formative years.
Clinically Diagnosing A High Functioning Sociopath
Sociopathic traits usually manifest by the time someone reaches their early teens. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (DSM-5) includes sociopathic traits under the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. The individual must exhibit at least three of these antisocial behaviors;
- Disregarding social norms and lawful behaviors-repeatedly performing actions that are grounds for arrest.
- Repeated lying, conning, or deception for personal profit or gain.
- Impulsiveness or failure to plan.
- Irritable or aggressive behavior often marked by physical fights or assaults.
- Reckless disregard for the safety of self or others.
- Consistent irresponsibility-failing to maintain regular work or financial commitments.
- Lacking remorse or rationalizing actions that hurt, mistreat, or take from others.
Also, to be diagnosed, the individual must be at least 18 years old with evidence of conduct disorder before 15 years of age. Their antisocial behavior cannot exclusively occur during schizophrenic or manic episodes or as a result of substance abuse.
High Functioning Sociopath Test
There are internet sociopathy tests that may help determine if you or someone you know has sociopathic tendencies. Unfortunately, a high functioning sociopath may not answer truthfully or accurately for fear of being exposed or criticized. Most internet quizzes are not intended for diagnosing disorders. They can, however, provide guidance if someone should seek professional help.
Trained professionals may use the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) as a diagnostic tool to rate a person's sociopathic, psychopathic, or antisocial tendencies. The Hare PCL-R contains two parts: a semi-structured interview and a review of the subject's file and history. Since sociopaths compulsively and unremorsefully lie, the information they provide must be confirmed by the subject's case history. This makes the Hare PCL-R much more reliable than self-directed assessments.
Hare's Psychopathy Checklist measures twenty traits associated with antisocial tendencies. Scoring ranges from 0 to 40. Those exhibiting no sociopathic traits would receive a zero. A score of 30 or above qualifies the subject for a psychopathy related diagnosis. Most people without antisocial personality disorders score around a five.
Treating A High Functioning Sociopath
Treating anyone with an antisocial personality disorder like sociopathy is often a difficult and lengthy process. The prognosis for treatment varies depending on a person's particular situation, their willingness to participate in treatment, and the severity of their symptoms. Many sociopaths have no desire to be treated or cured. Treatments include:
Using Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can help with some sociopath symptoms. Therapy could include anger management, challenging delusional thinking, treatment for addictions and marital problems. Also, therapists can help the willing sociopath find root problems for their issues and give them a chance to change their negative thought patterns and harmful behaviors.
The success of psychotherapy relies heavily on the therapeutic relationship between the patient and client. If a sociopath cannot admit to having a problem, it is often difficult to establish the therapeutic rapport necessary for effective psychotherapy.
Currently, there are no medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat antisocial personality disorder. Medications can help relieve the symptoms of co-occurring conditions such as anxiety, depression, impulsivity, or aggression. Since sociopaths could also have addictive tendencies, the drugs they are prescribed need to be monitored for misuse or abuse.
Alternative Therapies For Sociopaths
Yoga, exercise, guided meditative strategies, and other alternative therapies may help a sociopath with anxiety and stress. Though these therapies will not "cure" the disorder, it can be used as a supplement for medication and counseling.
Developing Support Networks
Sociopaths can benefit from working on sustaining healthier relationships with friends, family, and spouses. Marriage and family counseling may help if the high functioning sociopath is willing. Also, faith communities and 12-step programs like Alcoholics Anonymous may provide necessary social support and accountability for their actions.
Protecting Yourself From A High Functioning Sociopath
By realizing the behaviors and warning signs of a sociopath, you are better able to protect yourself from their selfish, sometimes dangerous, behaviors. Here are some tips for dealing with high functioning sociopaths:
- Remove them from your life. This may sound harsh and drastic, but it is the best way to protect you from a sociopath. Sociopaths' minds operate differently. They will not feel the same emotions you would if someone immediately decided to leave your life.
- Know you can't fix a sociopath. There is no "cure" for a sociopath. As mentioned above, it is a long, difficult process to help a sociopath lessen their symptoms. Chances are you may not have the knowledge or resources to give this person proper help.Most sociopaths have no desire to be helped. Without that desire, any form of treatment is useless. Believing you can "fix" a sociopath will only lead to failure and frustration.
- Don't make agreements or deals with a sociopath. The sociopath is looking out for his best interests and has no desire to accommodate your needs. If they come at you with "you owe me," remember this line has been used by sociopaths for years. Maintain your distance and be wary of any tearful pleas to get you to do or conceal something. This is just another manipulation technique of a sociopath.
- Trust your instincts. If that gut feeling nags at you when you first meet someone, trust it. Sociopaths are experts at alluring others, so, at first, it may be difficult to see through the charming facade. If your instincts tell you something isnot right, do not let a sociopath's ego-feeding flattery quiet that little voice.
- Get support. If you have been in a relationship with a sociopath whether romantic, working, family, or otherwise, chances are that you have been hurt and abused in some way. A mental health professional can teach you to set boundaries and protect yourself from the deceit, aggression, and anger of a high functioning sociopath. There may also be local support groups for families and friends affected by antisocial personality disorder.
What's The Difference Between A Sociopath And Psychopath?
Sociopaths and psychopaths have some similar characteristics since they are both parts of the antisocial personality disorder diagnosis. Personality disorders often have two key features:
- Impairments in personality: Thoughts and actions affecting the self and interpersonal relationships.
- Presence of pathological personality traits: Chronic compulsive or impulsive traits negatively affecting one's life.
Though both involve personality disorders, sociopaths and psychopaths are not interchangeable terms. Each has distinct traits.
Sociopaths tend to be more nervous and easily agitated compared to psychopaths. They can be unorganized, unreliable, impulsive, and have difficulty regulating emotions. Also, they may have troubles maintaining a job and often live on the fringes of society. A sociopath's crimes tend to be impulsive, disorganized, and haphazard.
In contrast, a psychopath is much better at mimicking others' emotions and gaining trust. They plan well, pay attention to details, and set goals in advance. Psychopaths are calmer under pressure which makes them more dangerous. They have the ability and lack of empathy to follow through with meticulously-planned violent crimes.
It should be noted that not all sociopaths are bad people. Due to the circumstances of their formative years, their brains are "wired differently." In many cases, their obsessions and compulsions are not controlled. Though their behaviors may be undesirable and even criminal, the issues they faced while growing up could be a major factor in their antisocial mindset.
Help is available for willing sociopaths as well as friends and family members affected by the disorder. Therapists specifically trained in treating antisocial personality disorders know the complexities and challenges of this diagnosis.
If you are seeking support and guidance, please consider getting help. If a traditional therapy setting is too cost-prohibitive or not feasible at this time, consider more affordable, convenient online counseling. The licensed and accredited therapists at Betterhelp.com are ready to help with any mental health-related issues and more.